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The firing orfer refers to as the cam spins, it opens valves which allow gas to flow in, close them during the compression stoke and open the exhaust valve to exhaust the spent fuel. Then the process repeats.
Where your spark plug WIRES are attached is where "firing order" comes in. The wire needs to send voltage to the plug during the compression stoke. Too early or too late will cause backfires and all kinds of not cool stuff. It could cause hesitation upon acceleration, But YES, it can damager your engine if not corrected.
There should be a "map" in the Haynes manual, I prefer Chiltons manuals, which maps out which wire coming off of the distributor (I'm old school and most cars today don't have an actual distributor but something which performs the same function, to send current to the spark plugs.)
It's recommended to replace the spark plugs one at a time so you only have one wire off at a time. That way it's near impossible to screw up the firing order once established.
The order with which you replace the plugs does not matter, but that wire you pull off of it, does.
I'd take it to a shop and have them figure it out for you, to get you back to a known configuration.