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General Information

RAV4 Hybrid AWD Limited
Black Sand Pearl
Advanced Technology
Frustrated with a paltry 14.5 m.p.g., in April of 2018 I traded in a 2017 Toyota Tundra SR5 (black, with mammoth packaging, and with 3,800 total miles) for this 2018 Rav4 Ltd Hybrid.

My Rav4 comes equipped with Toyota Safety Sense (TSS-P) that includes:
• Pre-Collision System w/ Pedestrian Detection (PCS w/ PD);
• Lane Departure Alert (LDA) w/ Steering Assist (SA);
• Auto High Beams (AHB);
• Dynamic Radar Cruise Control (DRCC);
• Star Safety System — featuring Enhanced Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Traction Control (TRAC), Anti-lock Brake System (ABS), Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD), Brake Assist (BA) and Smart Stop Technology (SST);
• Blind Spot Monitor (BSM);
• Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA);
• Front and Rear Parking Sonar; and
• LATCH-Lower Anchor & Tether for Children.

My Rav's Advanced Technology package includes:
• Bird’s Eye View Camera with Perimeter Scan;
• Entune Premium JBL Audio with Integrated Navigation and Entune App Suite; and
• Front and rear parking sonar.

My Rav4 also features:
• Frameless auto-dimming rearview mirror with HomeLink;
• Leather-trimmed shift lever;
• 4.2-in. TFT Multi-Information Display (MID);
• Smart Key System on front doors and liftgate with Push Button Start;
• SofTex-trimmed 8-way power-adjustable driver’s seat with memory
function, power lumbar support, sport bolsters and seatback
pocket; 4-way adjustable front passenger seat with sport bolsters
and seatback pocket;
• Driver and front passenger heated seats;
• SofTex-trimmed 60/40 split, reclining, fold-flat second-row
seat with center armrest; and the
• Hands-free, foot-activated (not currently functional due to installation of the trailer hitch) power liftgate with jam protection.
2018 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid AWD Limited (Black Sand Pearl)


• Hybrid Synergy Drive System^
• 2.5L DOHC Naturally Aspirated 4-Cylinder 2494CC 152Cu" Engine (2AR-FXE) w/Dual
Variable Valve Timing w/Intelligence (VVT-I)*, 194 NET HP w/ECVT^
• 3.54 x 3.86 in. (90 x 98 mm) bore and stroke
• 152.2 (2494 cm3) displacement
Electric Motor:
• Permanent magnet synchronous motor
• 105 kW max front output
• 50 kW max rear output
• 199 ft•lbf max front torque
• 103 ft•lbf max rear torque
• Nickel-Metal hydride battery
• 7.2 V/module voltage
• 6.5 Ah (3HR) capacity
• 34 modules
• 244.8 V overall voltage
• AWD w/Intelligence (AWD-I)
• EV, ECO and Sport Modes
• 14.8 gal. (56 L, 12.3 fuel tank capacity
• Free play steering

^Toyota's HSD system replaces a normal geared transmission with an electromechanical system. It allows the driver (or the automobile computer) to effectively select the optimal gear ratio required for any desired speed or power. The transmission is not limited to a fixed set of gears. This lack of constraint frees the engine to operate at its optimal (most efficient) speed (RPM).

The most efficient speed (RPM) for an ICE is often around 1500–2000 RPM for the typical power required to propel an automobile. An HSD vehicle will typically run the engine at its optimal efficiency speed whenever power is needed to charge batteries or accelerate the car, shutting down the engine entirely when less power is required. Like a continuously variable transmission, a HSD transmission continuously adjusts the effective gear ratio between the engine and the wheels to maintain the engine speed while the wheels increase their rotational speed during acceleration. This is why Toyota describes HSD-equipped vehicles as having an e-CVT (electronic continuously variable transmission) when required to classify the transmission type for standards specification lists or regulatory purposes.

*The variable valve timing, or VVT, allows for a phase shift in the timing of the valve opening and closing. It does this by offsetting the camshaft at a relative angle to the timing chain. The VVT gear is a fixed gear when there is no timing advance or retard. However when the computer sees it necessary to change the timing, the gear fills with engine oil.

Passages inside the engine head allow oil to flow from the pump to the variable valve timing solenoid. The ECU controls this solenoid to allow oil to enter the VVT gear. The gear will unlock its fixed pin and then become two independently rotating pieces. The pockets inside the gear fill up with oil causing an angular offset between the input (chain) and output (camshaft).

The system is controlled by the ECU using the cam position sensor for closed loop control. The angle of the offset is infinitely variable between zero and 15 degrees or so.

VVT is different from VTEC or VVT-L. Those systems use a separate cam profile that varies the lift amount, duration and phase. However since the cam profile is fixed, it is not infinitely variable like VVT is.

What makes Toyota's implementation "intelligent" and how is it "dual"? VVT is turned on at set points that use throttle angle and engine rpm as input signals. The engine ECU has a map and when the inputs are good, it turns on an "oil control valve" that sends oil pressure to the VVT gear to turn it on. In this "dual" implementation, the VVT-i system adjusts timing on both intake and exhaust camshafts. It's particularly suited for a hybrid vehicle because by adjusting the valve timing, engine start and stop occurs almost unnoticeably at minimum compression. Varying the timing of the valve's opening and closing results in cleaner combustion, generating either more power, or less harmful emissions.

For an easy to follow demonstrative video, follow these links:; (specific to Toyota VVT-i); or this one to see inside a Toyota VVT-i camshaft gear:
• WeatherTech FloorLiners
• WeatherTech Seat Protectors (front and back)
• WeatherTech TechShade
• Factory Seat Back Cargo Liner (part PU550-42160-01) (Seat back portion currently unused - see et seq)
• Factory OEM door sill protectors 4PC
• Carbon Fiber Car Center Console Armrest Cushion Mat Pad Cover by autoracing-store (eBay)
• Toyota Rav4 Embroidery Seat Belt Cover Cushion Shoulder Harness Pads by comfortspring (etsy)
• Dealership window tint
• Aftermarket application of Ceramic Pro (Gold Package) that consisted of 4 layers of Ceramic Pro 9H applied to the vehicle’s paint (permanent protection with a lifetime warranty) with an additional layer of protection added to exposed areas including windshield and wheels. In all: 4 Layers of 9H, 1 Extra layer on exposed areas, 1 Layer of Top Coat, 1 Layer of 9H on plastics and wheels, and 1 Layer of Rain on windshield and front side windows.
• Toyota Rav4 Cross Bar Set PT278-42150 featuring custom Roof Rack Pads from ProTshirts
• 2pcs ABS Chrome Rearview Side Mirror Cover Trim Strip Emblems sold by 301autocar
• DUAL VVT-I TOYOTA Genuine Parts Original LOGO Decal Emblem Badge 3D left and right ("Why advertise this bit of common engine tech," you maybe wondering? Because Toyota perfected it and it adds to the efficiency of this hybrid vehicle - see an explanation of vvt-i in "under the hood" below)
• AWD-i TOYOTA Genuine Parts Original LOGO Decal Emblem Badge
• Custom Colgan Crush Black Vinyl Original Bra (featuring openings for fog lights, sensors, and grille camera {no front license plate})
• Custom WeatherShield HP Car Cover
• Curt C13149 Trailer Hitch Receiver
• Hollywood Racks HR1400 Sport Rider SE 4-Bike Platform Rack
• Curt 18151 Basket-Style Cargo Carrier
• Entune Premium JBL Audio, SiriusXM, AM/FM, 11 JBL GreenEdge speakers including subwoofer (described below), 576 watt amplifier (8-channel class-H DSP amp), music streaming via Bluetooth, HD Radio, AM/FM Cache Radio, and Gracenote Album Cover Art.
• Speaker placement:
2×80/16 mm mid/tweeter Unity Extended Bandwidth speakers. Compact, lightweight, next-generation coaxials reproduce high and middle frequencies. With two diaphragms and a single motor, they perform like two speakers.
2×170 mm wide-dispersion woofers. Patent-pending sound lenses improve sound consistency and coverage, working with the mid/tweeters to deliver superb sound to the front passengers.
2×170/25 mm full range/tweeter coaxial speakers. High-efficiency designs with optimized components address the full auditory response range, filling the rear cabin with clear, rich sound.
1×200 mm subwoofer in its own enclosure. Within its own enclosure, this subwoofer delivers deep, clear, low-frequency effects and optimises response for the entire system.
• Front: Strut
• Rear: Double Wishbone
Wheel and Tire
• Factory rubber now on ULTRA- DECOY CUV 251BK Gloss Black wheels
• WeatherTech mud flaps



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