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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Ok, got a 1993 Toyota Pickup 22-RE engine (about 40k on it) 5 speed, 201K miles on the truck. I run Synthetic Ams-soil, and replaced the spark plugs a few weeks ago.

First things first. Today I was backing the truck up on some blocks, to work on the fender, and noticed a LOT of white smoke coming out when under load. It also seemed like it wasn't getting much power either.

I've researched on the forums here, and it appears I may have a screwed head gasket, and maybe other problems. :headbang: Some stuff I've noticed:

- Coolant leak, or burning off. I'm having to top off the coolant a couple times a week. Last week, I was TOTALLY empty, and I'd checked it a few days before. Almost overheated on the highway before I noticed it.

- My first cylinder has some issues. I've attached pictures of spark plug 1 (burned) and 2 (clean, for comparison). Seems to be burning oil.

- My last post was on a weird idle pattern I've been noticing, when I step on the brake. Might not have anything to do with this, possibly an idle screw. Anyways, I've also noticed it will sometimes idle rough when first starting, or at a stop (foot off brake or clutch).

- Some weird stuff on the oil cap. Deposits from coolant leaking into the engine maybe? Picture attached.

I'm hoping you guys can help me out. This will definitely be a DIY project for me, I dont have a ton of cash. I've got the Haynes manual, and link to the FSM.

Thanks so much! Let me know what other info you need. :thumbsup:



 

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Discussion Starter · #3 · (Edited)
Sounds to me like the HG, or possibly worse.
I've figured as much, just hoping it's not "worse". :headbang:

I've found a couple good guides on how change the head gasket, but anyway have any good tips to keep in mind? I have most of the tools to do it myself. I might need to buy an engine jack.

For a amateur, how hard is a 22RE teardown? I'll do all my research beforehand, but anything special to keep in mind?
 

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I've figured as much, just hoping it's not "worse". :headbang:

I've found a couple good guides on how change the head gasket, but anyway have any good tips to keep in mind? I have most of the tools to do it myself. I might need to buy an engine jack.

For a amateur, how hard is a 22RE teardown? I'll do all my research beforehand, but anything special to keep in mind?

When's the last time the timing chain was done? If it's been 50,000 miles or more, I'd definitely recommend doing that while you're at it. As far as tips, there are the usual two bolt locations that can give you fits if you're not aware of them. 1. There's the bolt that is in the front of the head that runs vertically and threads into the timing cover. 2. The allen head bolt that runs horizontally through the thermostat housing into the head.

Doing a leak-down test can help diagnose (isolate) the problem. This could expose a problem in the block (if there was one), etc...

You can definitely tear this down. Take your time. I did it for the first time just over a year ago. It's not too bad. Just don't be in a hurry.

You won't need a jack if the block is staying in the engine compartment.
 

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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
When's the last time the timing chain was done? If it's been 50,000 miles or more, I'd definitely recommend doing that while you're at it. As far as tips, there are the usual two bolt locations that can give you fits if you're not aware of them. 1. There's the bolt that is in the front of the head that runs vertically and threads into the timing cover. 2. The allen head bolt that runs horizontally through the thermostat housing into the head.

Doing a leak-down test can help diagnose (isolate) the problem. This could expose a problem in the block (if there was one), etc...

You can definitely tear this down. Take your time. I did it for the first time just over a year ago. It's not too bad. Just don't be in a hurry.

You won't need a jack if the block is staying in the engine compartment.
Great advice outdoorfan! As for the jack, I read on a couple of guides it's easier to work on the engine if you take it out, is that not a good idea?

Compression test, is that a DIY, or would the shop need to do that?
 

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I haven't actually had my engine out, so I can't comment from first-hand experience. Of course, it will definitely be a lot easier to work on it if it's removed, but removing it takes extra work as well.

You can get a compression tester for $20 or so. Very handy to have on hand. And, this is a DIY test. The shop can be handy for a more involved leak-down test, however.

If you fell like the clutch should be replaced sometime soon, then this would be a great time for that, which means pulling the engine would be the way to go. Plus, you don't know exactly what's wrong, and if you the bottom end needs a partial or full rebuild, or if the block needs decking, then it will have to be removed and disassembled.

If you leave the block in, I found it very helpful to both remove and install the head with the intake manifold (with the plenum detached) bolted onto the head. Otherwise, there's bolts that you'll have a tough time getting to.
 

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x2 on the leak-down test. Although a compression test will probably identify the cyl(s) with head gasket leakage, a leak-down test will tell you how the rings and valves are in the good cylinders. That can help you decide if you need to attend to rings and do a rebuild, or whether it's just the head gasket that's the problem. Info here:
http://www.geocities.com/dsmgrrrl/FAQs/leakdown.htm

One thing you'll absolutely have to have is a torque wrench, but other than that, just a decent set of tools, access to the fsm, and care and patience. I find pulling motors apart and reassembling them to be a lot of fun - reminds me of making models when I was a kid, only these are better because when you finish assembling them, they actually run! (you hope :D )

What I would worry about is why a motor with only 40k already has a blown head gasket. You'll have to somehow get a precision straight edge on to the block to thoroughly check for low spots. If you find any, you'll need to have the block milled - otherwise you'll be doing the job again in another 40k miles, probably less.

Likewise, you should have the head checked and decked, and there is a question of how much has already been shaved off. It could be that there isn't enough material left to mill the head again. I'm not sure how to check, though. Maybe talk with the folks at engnbldr.com - they're likely to know.

Make sure you use new head bolts to reassemble the motor.
 

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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
Well, I bought the car about 5 months ago, the guy said there was about 35K on it. I may have to ask him for some more details, but my hunch would be it WAS a rebuild when he put it in, so the changes the block has some wear and tear is pretty high.

I guess I won't know much until I open it up and take a look. Along with head gaskets, I'm going to check the timing chain and replace that too. Anything else I need to look at while I've got her open?

I'll grab a compression check tool tomorrow and let you guys know what I find.
 

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Yes, checking both the head and the block for warpage is extremely important. The FSM lays out what the acceptable warpage limits are. If you end up needing a rebuild, or whatever, I would also highly recommend Ted Stanwood (Engbldr). I'm installing one of his heads on my rig right now.

When doing the compression test, make sure you hold the throttle wide open when cranking. Also, I disconnect the electrical connector to the cold-start injector so that it doesn't keep spraying gas into the intake during this procedure.

Since you're going to be replacing the timing chain, you'll want to break that crankshaft pulley bolt loose before pulling anything. You do that by putting a socket (preferrably an impact socket or one of comparable strength) on the bolt with a breaker bar of suitable length so that you can wedge the bar up against one of the side panels on the driver's side of the engine bay (I think it's the driver's side). Get it firm and tight against the frame, or whatever, because what you're going to do next is crank the starter over (definitely have the plug wires detached from the plugs; you don't want the engine to start) and it will break that bolt loose. This can save you a ton of hassle later, as trying to get enough leverage to break that bolt loose can be darn near impossible at times.
 

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Discussion Starter · #11 ·
I've been pouring over the FSM, printed out all the engine pages relevent to this project. It doesn't look too bad, but there are a lot of special tools they mention. How many of these do I really need? I'm hoping I don't have to do a rebuild, it's not in my budget, but if I may not know that till I can find out the condition of the block.

When I get home from work I'll run a compression test.
 

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SST:

compression tester, torque wrench, a way to see if the head and block surfaces are warped, a scraper to get the old gasket material off those surfaces, timing light when you have everything put back together and fire it up

Those are the only ones that come to mind. If you end up having to do a valve job, rings, etc, then you will probably need some more stuff.
Changing the timing chain and replacing the HG doesn't take anything special.
 

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On the SSTs, it depends on how you'll handle certain tasks. For instance, since you will (or should) be sending your head to a good machine shop for milling, you could ask them to check valve stem bushing clearance and replace the valve seals. Thus you wouldn't need a valve spring compressor nor the special caliper gauge to measure the bushing IDs. On the other hand, you could borrow a valve spring compressor from Autozone; I think it's doubtful they would have an instrument capable of measuring the bushings, tho. You can always do the backyard mechanic job of checking them by wiggling the valve back and forth in various positions to see if there is excessive play.

If you wind up rebuilding the block, you might be able to improvise or borrow from Autozone most or all the tools you would need to press rod bushings and seals. Likewise you may be able to borrow a micrometer for checking journal runout. As far as cylinder bores, I think you'd be better off leaving the measuring to the machine shop.

One thing I sometimes do if I need a special tool but don't want to own it is to buy one on ebay and when I'm through, turn around and sell it. I did that with an excellent commercial paint sprayer a couple years ago and I think my net cost was about 50 bucks for 2 months ownership - it would have cost that much to rent an inferior sprayer for a single day.

The bottom line is that it depends on whether the bottom end needs rebuilding. If it does, you are into more money, trouble, time, and possible need for special tools. You'll have more choices to make. If it's just the head gasket, the only bugaboo is finding a way to borrow or rent a high precision straight edge, and the decision you'll face if the block needs to be resurfaced. Otherwise replacing the head gasket is not difficult - just an involved process.

As far as removing old gasket material, a plastic scraper would be okay, but even on the iron block a metal scraper is risky - believe me you don't want to scratch the surface. With patience, you can get all the material off by using a can of gasket remover and a scotch brite pad - but even with that, be gentle.

The timing light you could borrow from Autozone.
 

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Is your hood hinge on the radiator support? it looks..... reverse mounted from teh pics
 

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Discussion Starter · #15 ·
Is your hood hinge on the radiator support? it looks..... reverse mounted from teh pics
I don't think it is :confused:. Not sure, it operates like a normal hood.

sb5walker, thanks for the good info! So basically, I can get whatever tools I might need from a part shop? That's very helpful, cause I really won't know till I get in there. My plan right now is to kick my butt into gear at work, gather up $1500 or so, and then tear into this thing, so I have the cash just in case. During that time, reading everything I can to get knowledgeable about what I'm dealing with.

I'd love to do a tear down thread on here where I do this, posting pics as I go. That would be an awesome resource for anyone looking to do this, and would help me get good info from everyone here.
 

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yeah my apologies, from the angle of the pictures it looks like your hood is opening from the rear (like a Datsun 240Z for example, or the older Dodge Vipers)



as for the pics, we will like to see them, its a great visual aid
 

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Specifically, Autozone seems to be the most reliable source of tools to borrow, but they vary store-to-store and city-to-city as far as what they loan and what kind of shape the tools are in. Check around.

Rebuild thread with pics - sounds great :thumbsup:

Now that I look back on those pics I see what you're talking about, DV.
 

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Discussion Starter · #19 ·
Ok, I've got the Equus 3320 Multimeter and the Actron CP7826 Compression Tester on order from Amazon. Got them both for about $50 bucks, not bad I think! I should be here first of next week.

A question for you guys, do you think I'm better off fixing my existing motor or buying a new one? I've talked to a couple of yota savvy people at some shops in the area (not as savvy as you guys!) and they are suggesting the possibility of picking up a new 22RE at a junkyard. I'm kinda hesitant about that.

I believe I have a good motor in there now, it just needs some work. And if it really does have only about 40k on it, I'm not likely to find something comparable anywhere. With a new timing chain, head gasket, I believe it could last forever. I've never done an engine tear apart, but I've never swapped on out either. I think it's probably going to be more difficult to do a swap, instead of just changing out the head gasket and TC.

What do you guys think? This baby is my daily driver. I think this truck is great, and I really want to get it going again. Thoughts?
 

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As long as you have access to an engine hoist, it is ten times easier to change out an engine than rebuild one. The question of whether that's a good idea depends on the shape of your current motor. If your knew the history of your motor, or if you could talk to the people who rebuilt the motor, that would help. But the fact that it has already been rebuilt does not weigh in its favor.

Unfortunately, you likely have head gasket trouble, which makes it difficult to assess rings and valves with a compression test, or even the more revealing leak-down test we mentioned above. Still, a leak-down test on the cylinders that don't have head gasket leakage can at least tell you about the rings/valves on those cyls.

Otherwise, it's a matter of getting the head off and trying to make a determination of ring condition, which is not easy without completely disassembling the motor and measuring the rings in the cylinders, and measuring the cyl bores. I have to say, your initial post, with possible indications of both head gasket leakage and oil burning, does not give me much confidence in your current motor.

It would certainly be easier to replace the motor than rebuild it, but with used motors there's always a question of what you're getting. On the other hand, if you were to buy a remanufactured long block, you could potentially get a nearly new quality motor, depending on who rebuilt it and what parts they used. Oregon Engine Rebuilders, for example, gives a lifetime unlimited mileage warranty on their engines, but shipping from Oregon would be high. Long blocks usually go for between $1100 and $1500, plus shipping and sometimes a core charge refunded only when you ship your motor to them. A used engine can often be had for around $300.

If it were me I'd get the leak-down test performed in all four cyls before you tear it down. Learn what you can. If that doesn't give you enough info, then you can always pull the head off and take a look. That won't cost you anything but time. If you decide to replace the motor with a used one, you can pull the timing set and other parts off your current motor, so you won't lose any parts you consider worth keeping.
 
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