With conventional flooded lead acid batteries there is no problem with jump starting a vehicle. It will recharge fairly quickly after the vehicle starts, and generally the battery can take it. If it is not a maintenance free type you can top it up with water if it goes down. However keep in mind that a flooded lead acid battery is considered to have reached full life in about 6 years. In industry the same lead acid technology is expected to reach 30 years life with good maintenance. So, the numbers would suggest we do pay a price for our poor treatment of the battery.Why? (rhetorical question). Certainly not going to ruin a battery in a few minutes (unless the battery would die anyway). It is simply a chemical reaction... I think people think their cars and the components are ultra fragile components sometimes.
However, these batteries in the trunk of our hybrid are not conventional flooded lead acid batteries. That is why Toyota charges $400 for them. They are either Gel type or AGM. The gel type as the name suggests are filled with a gel instead of a liquid. When they are recharged slowly the gas produced is absorbed by the gel and all is good. However when you charge them too fast (greater than 5 amps), they produce more gas than can be absorbed by the gel, and bubbles form in the gel. This deprives the grid of electrolyte and effectively reduces the capacity of the battery permanently.
The AGM or absorbed glass mat type also have no liquid level with the electrolyte absorbed in the mat. They can take more over charging, but if charged too fast too much gas is produced to absorb, and they vent through a pressure relief valve. You loose electrolyte and the battery dries out. There is no way to refill the battery and your battery dies prematurely by drying out.
So that is why you need to treat gel and AGM batteries as if they are fragile. They are! And, cost $400 to replace if you go to Toyota.