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Procrastinating on TN
'93 Pickup
3,459 Posts
Discussion Starter #1 (Edited)
Check it out: a gigantic post with tons of info that everyone who buys an 89-95 Toyota Pickup must read. :D It started with a great post by sb5walker and we went from there. The first part (the biggest part) is written about sb5’s 3VZ-E (V6) truck, and includes info specific to this motor as well as to these trucks in general. Then after that we have some more general info as well as a bit of 22R-E (4 cyl.) specific info. Much more info and more great links throughout subsequent posts as well.

Before we get into the meat of the post, let me say that everyone should also check the forum’s FAQ thread, and use the search feature, on top of reading this thread, before posting a new thread. Also, everyone should bookmark the online Factory Service Manual. The FSM will have instructions with diagrams, along with needed torque specs, for any job you need to do. Links to Toyota manuals are against forum rules…so simply Google search "Toyota pickup service manual" and click the first link. It's titled "1993 Toyota Pickup FSM", but will apply to all trucks 89-95:


And now here’s the good stuff :D

I [sb5walker] bought my 89 V6 4x4 X-cab in 1995 at 107k miles and now 14 years and 173k miles later, it's still going strong, so you could get a lot of years of good service out of that truck. Having said that, the 3VZE has a reputation of being a trouble-plagued motor. They aren't all like that - mine isn't (except for the headgasket replacement at 218k) - but enough of them are to give reason for caution. In addition to the head gasket problem, which every 3VZE will eventually encounter, many of them also suffer from burnt exhaust valves. A possible cause of that is valves that stretch over time, reducing clearance until they fail to fully close.

I had the valves adjusted at 125k (a year after I bought my truck) and found some of the valves had significantly less clearance than spec. I adjusted them again when I replaced my head gaskets at 218k miles. I've never had burnt exhaust valves (knocking on wood!) and I recommend you have the valves adjusted, too. The exception would be if the head gaskets were changed, in which case the valves should have been adjusted then. Perhaps checking them every 70-80k miles would be good insurance. This is a job for a well-equipped shop as it takes a special tool and is a challenging job.

Other areas of maintenance you can expect (at some point, but hard to say when) is the starter contacts wearing until it justs clicks when you turn the key (that's an inexpensive fix but getting at the starter - Oy! that's another story), needing to replace the shift bushings (very easy and cheap - should be done when you replace that clutch), having the occasional sensor fail (with the engine running roughly as a result), possibly needing to replace the distributor, and being at risk of having your catalytic converter sawed off of your truck (you'll have the dubious honor of having a truck with a converter packed with more valuable precious metals than normal - and in cities there are those who won't be able to resist). That's on top of the normal tune ups and replacing parts that periodically fail like battery, alternator etc.

Still, all of that is in the context of the legendary longevity of Toyotas. If you're lucky and take good care of the truck, you can have a reasonable expectation of getting another 200k miles out of it.

Mileage: The 3VZE is not known for either efficiency nor power, but there is something you can do to improve both by a significant margin: replace the stock muffler with a well-designed turbo style cat-back exhaust. When I installed a Borla system in 1996 (no longer available, unfortunately) my highway miles went from 20 to 24, a 20% increase. Power increased by about the same - a very significant jump in power. I think of the products available now, Flowmaster makes a decent one that is similar to the Borla.

Pinging: Mine had a really persistent pinging problem and nothing seemed to help it. It laughed at premium gas and retarding the timing, as well as all manner of fuel injector cleaners, gas additives, spark plugs and diagnostics. I finally gave up looking for the cause. Then a couple years ago I replaced my distributor because of bushing squeal when cold. Imagine my shock and delight when it completely cured the pinging problem. I guess the signal generating coil that sends crank position signals to the ecu (explained below) wasn't working properly. Speaking of gas, the 3VZE was designed to run on - and runs best on - 87 octane. Mine doesn't like Texaco or Mobil fuels very much, so I avoid them.

Sticky 4WD engagement - our transfer cases have a quirk where if you run it in 4wd on a surface with good traction (like a dry road or one that's just wet) the 4wd may later get balky at engaging. You can move the selector to 4 high or low, but it won't engage. The solution is to drive forwards and backwards repeatedly (on a slippery surface) until it engages. I've seen this take some time. The lesson is, make sure you run in 4wd only on slippery surfaces.

Some maintenance items & thoughts based on my own 3VZE (you'll get a variety of opinions on some of these):

Clutch - when I replaced mine at about 165k miles, I bought Toyota parts. Those are still going strong at 280k miles, so that's a safe option. Many people here swear by the Marlin Crawler Heavy Duty Clutch Kit. Here's a nice thread from someone who just installed one of those:

Plugs - Hands down, my engine does the best on the factory spec Denso K16R-U. They're available at Autozone for less than $1.50 each.

Plug Wires - When you need them, only get the Toyota wires. They are excellent quality and come with all the keepers, have cylinder numbering and fit perfectly. I once made the mistake of trying a fancy aftermarket brand and they sucked by comparison. I was glad to get rid of them and switch back to the Toyota ones a few years later.

Timing - spec is 10 degrees with a jumper attached between terminals TE1 and E1 in the gray diagnostic connector, but many people do better with a bit more advance. 12 degrees is very common and probably a better setting for the 3VZE. Some run 14 degrees and get snappier throttle response and some more low end torque but sacrifice a bit of mileage and also emissions suffer some. In fact when getting an emissions test, set it back at 10.

Oil Filter - Many opinions, but the Toyota filters have more surface area than most of the aftermarkets. It's a very good quality filter, and you can usually negotiate a good deal with the dealer if you buy a bunch of 'em.

Air Filter - I replaced my intake with a K&N system, but I don't recommend you do the same. I saw no improvement in mileage or power. For air filter, I again recommend the Toyota ones. There is an alternative to the K&N known as the "ISR" mod (Intake Silencer Removal). It is documented over at the yotatech forum.

Transmission Gear Oil - very important - our transmissions do NOT do well with the current standard GL-5 gear oils. It's too slippery and the synchros don't work, making for very hard shifting. You need a GL-4 fluid, and the one nearly every Toyota techie recommends is the Red Line MT-90 which is a synthetic 75W90 GL-4 Gear Oil:
The differentials and transfer case, however, do better with a GL-5. Red Line makes several good synthetic GL-5 oils, this is a popular one:

"Groan Stopper Bolt Covers" - about the only bonehead engineering on the truck is the steering stops on the 4wd trucks. There are stopper bolts that come from the factory covered with a plastic cover that gets mashed and worn away after not too many miles. You can replace them, but most of us just hit the stops with some grease when we're in the neighborhood (fore and aft of front wheels). I actually bought new covers for a change two years ago and they're still holding up, but I know it's temporary. You'll know when they need greasing because the steering makes frightful creaking/groaning sounds when the wheels are all the way turned. It's harmless but sounds terrible.

Cracked dash - if yours isn't cracked yet get some Armor All on there! Otherwise it will most definitely crack.

Speedometer cable - will get dry, leading to noise and the speedo needle waving back and forth. You can usually get by with lubricating it, search the forum for info when that time comes.

Headlights - wait till you have to change one of these (sinister chuckle). You have to take off the grille, which is a lot of fun! Several of the people on the forum here swear by their Hella e-code light housings, and I have to say they do look pretty cool, not to mention making the removal of the grille unnecessary when changing out a bulb...

Brakes - our trucks don't have the best brakes in the world, especially if you get oversized tires. Good pads are a must. The Hawks are very good, if a bit dusty. sells em at a good price. The Toyota pads are semi-metallic and work well. I bought Powerslot rotors two years ago, which are slotted Brembo rotors, and I like them a lot. A little vibration on hard stops but much better bite. Got those at tirerack too.

Timing Belt - change at about 70k miles. But if yours does break, you'll be happy to know the 3VZE is a non-interference motor - the pistons can't reach the valves if the belt breaks. Get the Toyota belts - they have timing marks on them while the aftermarket brands don't. If you pay someone to do the work, I suppose it doesn't so much matter, except that the belt on this engine is tricky to get lined up. You have to give the motor two full clockwise rotations and check it to see if the marks still line up. Often one of the cam pulleys is off a tooth. Make sure your mechanic has experience with this motor. If your idler and tensioner pulleys were not changed with the last belt change, replace 'em. The stock water pump is a very simple and VERY durable Aisin. My current one (also an Aisin) has about 160k miles on it and has seen a lot of rusty coolant! Gotta love that Japanese engineering. I will be replacing it with my next timing belt change in about 5-8k miles. I mention it here because it's behind the timing belt and so you need to figure out if you need a new pump when you change the belt.

Wheel Hub maintenance - I'm hoping your truck has the wonderful Aisin manual hubs, and if so, take care of them by periodically cleaning and greasing them. Same goes for the front wheel bearings, of course. Take care of those, and they'll last well beyond 300,000 miles. Speaking of lasting, I'm still on my original ball joints, and they're still tight. How, I have no idea. But they are.

ANTIFREEZE - VERY Important - glad I didn't forget this. Don't make the same mistake I did by using the green antifreeze. One day I looked and my coolant had turned completely rusty. The green stuff contains silicates and japanese engines hate silicates. If the coolant gets tired your block will very badly corrode. Stick with the Toyota Red coolant, which has a very different chemistry made especially for your motor. If the truck currently has green, yellow or orange coolant, you have to be very careful to thoroughly flush all traces out of it with several changes of water before filing with 50-50 Toyota Red and DISTILLED water. The different coolant types do NOT mix well. Also, tap water will cause scale and can cause corrosive byproducts to form. Stick with distilled water only. Your last flush should likewise be with distilled water, as some will remain in the heater core and various nooks and crannies. There is a draincock on the side of the motor and it helps to pull the heater hose to get a good flush.

Thermostat - make sure you have only a Toyota 180 degree thermostat in there. It should be changed when you change coolant, since you have to remove it anyway to get a good flush..

Spare tire winch - went to use mine a few years ago and it was frozen SOLID! Oh, what an enormous F-ing pain in the ass that was. I strongly recommend lowering your spare and spraying a good waxy water-repelling lube like Boeing's Boeshield T-9 in there.

Speaking of frozen, have someone work the parking brake back and forth while you look on the inside of both back wheels to make sure the parking brake levers move freely. Hit them with a little Boeshield too. I replaced a frozen one of those two years ago.

You may already know, but don't run your gas too low in the tank - as with most fuel injected vehicles, the fuel pump is in the tank and uses fuel for cooling. I try to keep mine over 1/4 full.

Brake fluid - as you may already know, you can get the most life out of your calipers, wheel cylinders, clutch slave cylinder and master cylinders by flushing your fluid with fresh good quality DOT 4 fluid every 2-3 years. Bleeding is turned into a very easy, almost fun job with a set of speed bleeders - replacement bleed fittings that have check valves in them that prevent air from getting sucked in. They enable you to bleed the brakes by yourself. Again, if you won't be doing this work they're unnecessary, but if you want to get them, I finally found good ones after two sets of lousy ones: The same vendor sells excellent fluids at very good prices, and carries excellent pads and rotors too.

Keeping the 3VZE running at in top form may require you to learn a little about how the computerized engine control systems work. Here is a very brief run-down:

The ecu (called the ecm in toyota literature) receives a bunch of information about engine conditions from a variety of sensors, then sends out pulses to control spark and fuel injection. The most important sensors are the following, and the motor won't run right unless they are all functioning properly:

ECT - Engine Coolant Temp sensor, located on the top of the motor in the back, just in front of the firewall and half under the plenum (along with 3-4 other sensors) It changes resistance when the motor reaches operating temp. When the motor is cold, the ecu operates in "Open Loop" mode which means it uses mainly preset values for mixture and it ignores the Oxygen sensor. When the ECT signals operating temp, the ecu goes into "Closed Loop" mode and uses all the sensors' input to calibrate the fuel and timing.

VAFM - Volume Air Flow Meter - what the 3VZE has instead of a mass air sensor. It's the big metal thing attached to the air filter housing. It contains a trap door-like vane that measures the air flow into the motor. It has to open some to close a ground for the relay that controls the fuel pump. No air flow, no fuel pressure. It also measures intake air temperature.

TPS - Throttle position sensor - measures throttle position (duh) but also has an idle signal when the throttle is closed that wasn't working on my truck and it ran rough at idle. Took two years to find the pesky tps and when replaced the truck began to purr at idle and still does now 12 years later.

Oxygen Sensor - in the exhaust pipe just in front of the cat. Must be replaced at least every 90k miles, or sooner if it has been gunked up by something evil. Gives the ecu the info needed to set the mixture right.

Crankshaft Position Sensor - is actually part of the distributor. There are a series of cam-like projections on two metal rotors (called signal rotors) under the distributor's rotor (the one you replace at tune-up). There are three coils called signal coils or signal generating coils that send signals to the ecu as the signal rotors rotate past. These signals provide the signals used by the ecu to control spark timing and advance.

There are other sensors, such as EGR gas temp sensor, knock sensor, vehicle speed sensor etc., but the above are the main ones and problems with any of them will cause the motor to not run right. There are procedures and specs for testing all of them in the factory manual. If you don't have an fsm, google 1993 toyota pickup service manual That will give you 98% correct info. There were a few changes between 91 and 93 including the timing belt idler arrangement, slightly different throttle body and slightly different distributor, but almost everything else is identically the same.

There is a great Automotive Training and Resource Site that has technical articles explaining the operation of most systems in Toyota engines. It includes info on newer and more advanced motors, but there's a lot of good info on the 3VZE type motor controls, too. Follow the link for Technical Articles:

You usually can't beat the OEM Toyota parts for quality and longevity. Fortunately, there's a dealer in Washington State that sells online at a huge discount:

Sometimes you can get the OEM brand of part (Denso, Aisin etc) from other sources for less even than the very discounted 1sttoyota prices. A very good source is, another is Rockauto also carries Beck/Arnley parts, which come from a variety of OEMs, many of them japanese. Sometimes a junkyard part is just what the doctor ordered, and there is a great portal for hundreds of salvage yards:

There's a lot of info there, I know, but even so I may have forgotten something obvious. If I think of something else I'll add it, or feel free to ask. I'm in Ridgefield for another month, so I'm not far away. If you need help with something, send me a PM. Best of luck with it - they're great trucks. If you take good care of them, they take good care of you.

Procrastinating on TN
'93 Pickup
3,459 Posts
Discussion Starter #2 (Edited)
Part 2

And now, added info:

Non engine-specific:

Trouble Codes (Check Engine Light): Cars made before 1996 use the OBDI (on-board diagnostics) system, as opposed to the much more sophisticated OBDII system. The plus side of this is that when your CEL comes on it is extremely easy to find out what code it is. All you need is a metal paper clip or small piece of wire. Insert one end each of the paper clip etc. (called the jumper) into the terminals labeled TE1 and E1 in the diagnostic check connector, found under the hood next to the fuse box. Then, you turn the ignition key to on and the CEL will blink in a specific sequence. By counting the blinks, you determine what code you have. First it will blink the first digit of the code. Then there will be a 1.5 second pause, and the second digit of the code will blink. If you had another code, there would be a 2.5 second pause between them and the process would repeat. Then, once all codes have been flashed, there will be a 4.5 second pause, and then the entire series will start over from the beginning. For example, if _ represents a pause and * represents a blink, code 12 and code 42 would look like this if they cycled around twice:

*_**_ _****_**_ _ _ _*_**_ _****_**

In the Factory Service Manual, mentioned at the beginning of the thread, there are instructions as well as a chart describing what each code is. Look under "Engine", then "MFI system - diagnostics". I just wanted to provide some instructions in nice plain English, but you will need the manual to do this process.You can move forward in fixing an engine problem much more quickly and easily if you know what codes you have registered. THIS IS THE FIRST THING YOU SHOULD DO IF YOUR CEL COMES ON!

To clear any stored codes, you simply pull the fuse labeled "EFI" out for a while (30 seconds recommended in FSM), then put it back. The FSM mentions this as well.

4wd: This isn’t specific to the 22R-E, but just also wanted to add that if you pop it into 4wd and then can’t get it back out, most people find that rolling in reverse, or a combination of reverse/forward/reverse/forward will get it un-bound. The best solution I have found when it won’t pop back into 2wd is to roll a bit in reverse, then quickly throw it in first and as soon as it rolls forward, pop the transfer case shifter. Also, lots of info on the continuously confusing/problematic ADD (automatic differential disconnect) system is out there. Here’s a link to a good thread about it (in which I believe I get pwned at one point :D). In it is another link to a very good article about the ADD system (also found in the FAQ thread, which everyone should read as well).

Exhaust/Intakes: I thought I’d throw this in because we do so many threads about it. This is actually a PM I sent to somebody, and because I’m lazy I’m going to copy and paste. :D So you know, everyone in the Toyota Pickup/Hilux community advises against wasting money on intake upgrades. They do nothing power-wise for the truck. Some people recommend swapping the battery and the intake positions to keep the intake air tube from running next to the hot radiator, but you do have to buy longer battery cables. Stick with a basic paper filter from a quality brand such as Wix, or Toyota oem. Just stay away from that Fram :poop: and you'll be fine. As for exhaust, allow me to (loosely) quote Ted from Engnbldr, one of the most expert 22re builders out there:

"The best setup we have found is to use the excellent factory exhaust manifold, then a high flow universal cat, straight-thru style muffler, and 2.25" piping."

Flowmasters, despite all the hype, are :thumbdown IMHO because they are overpriced and are not straight-thru, they function in the same way as a factory muffler. Examples of common straight-thru style mufflers would be Cherry Bombs or Magnaflows. Be warned that the very inexpensive ones such as Cherry Bomb glasspacks will get louder over time as the fiberglass packing in them gets worn out.

You should be able to set up a pretty nice exhaust for $300 or less if you buy a cat ($80) and muffler ($60 or less) and go to an exhaust shop. They will then sell you piping for about 4 bucks a foot, and charge you probably 100 bucks to weld it up. They could even bend pipe for you. This will make your truck have a nice sound and a couple more HP.

Clutch/Tranny (manual): X1million on the Marlin Crawler HD clutch kit, everyone that has one loves it. Also a very common issue is sloppy shifters, which I believe sb5 mentioned. One thing will fix the problem guaranteed: Marlin Crawlers upgraded plastic shifter seat. The shifter seat in the factory tranny is a POS rubber thing, and as it gets blown to bits over time, the shifter will get sloppy. An hour or less of work and $16 of parts to install a new seat/shifter socket will make the problem go away. There are instructions all over the place for this, so search it up. Also, x2 on the Redline GL-4 fluid. It’s more expensive, but is well worth it.

Steering: Like sb5 said, steering stops are a common, harmless but annoying issue. If the plastic caps are gone, I say find some universal automotive grease and just freakin’ gob it on there. I mean slather ‘em up. :naughty: 90% of steering groan problems are fixed by doing this.

Sloppy steering: COMMON PROBLEM ALERT! Over time the bushings in the steering idler arm wear down and cause the steering wheel to be sloppy, especially at higher speeds. Off-roading accelerates the weardown. All you need to fix it is a $10 part, a ratchet and an hour of your time. Everyone with steering symptoms should do this (and the steering stop greasing) first. The only way to go when you’re doing this job is with Jayota’s excellent guide on (with pics! :thumbup:) Check it:

Body Lifts: Everyone who starts getting into trucks wonders what the deal with body lifts are. Some people don't like them, especially if the frame poking out a little bit on the body bothers you, but they have a lot of advantages. Drew, (93 toyota), came up with a great post that pretty much sums up what you need to know:

93 toyota said:
Body lifts. The cheap lift, but is it a good lift? The question has been asked too many times for me to count and I’m sure it will continue to be that way for years to come. A body lift is, in most cases, a good technique in lifting a truck. Raising your body only will allow you to raise your center of gravity only a fraction compared to doing it with a suspension lift due to the motor , tranny, axles, and frame staying in their oem respected areas. The lift will allow for 33 inch tires with little to no rub if running correct rim sizes. Steering will be affected due to the addition of an extra extension but with a good amount of effort you can minimize this to a near minimum. Extending shifters is really nothing special. Take the assembly right out of the tranny and cut and paste. Nothing more, nothing less. Yes, your truck is now sitting on hockey pucks. But with the technology now given to the manufactures, they are very reliable and covered by warranty in most cases. Chicks dig it, and your neighbors will hate it. For 140 dollars, Performance Accessories will ship you a kit. I installed one in my truck a year and a half ago as a silly little junior and still was able to do it no problem. As intimidating as it can be, it’s not hard. Just follow instructions.
And now for some 22R-E info

Timing: Set your timing to 5 degrees BTDC with the TE1 and E1 terminals of the check connector jumped. Period. Factory service manual has excellent instructions.

Timing chain:The 22R-E uses a timing chain, which you would think would never break. But if it or either of the gears it moves on fails, the pistons will collide with the valves, meaning you’re either in for a new head or a complete valve job. The reason they fail is because the timing chain guides are plastic and will eventually break. This causes the chain to stretch rapidly, the tensioner can no longer take up the slack, and if the chain doesn’t break, some teeth on the gears probably will. Most 22R-E’s are good from anywhere between 120-150k miles, and then need a timing job. If your truck is in this mileage range and you start hearing a rattling noise at idle from the front of the engine, your timing chain guides have most likely broken and you need to have the timing chain replaced ASAP before you suffer worse damage. Check Engnbldr or OSK for the kit. This is also discussed in the FAQ thread. Here's links to a couple great write-ups on how to do the job yourself. You will also need the FSM for torque specs, more diagrams, etc., however you do not need to remove the cylinder head to do this job like the FSM says you do.

Throttle Position Sensor: The TPS is also often an issue on the 22R-E. Often it won’t need to be replaced, but just adjusted. This is easiest done IMO with the throttle body removed, plus this gives you an opportunity to clean the gunk out of the TB. Check the factory service manual for good instructions/specs on testing.

Idle surging: This is also discussed in the FAQ, but I put it in here because it's one of the most common, if not the most common oddity people run into when they buy one of these trucks, because either the previous owner or the new owner has messed with the idle speed. The idle speed bouncing/surging up and down is fixed 90% of the time by setting the idle speed down. If the idle is too high, the computer will engage/disengage a fuel cut when you push the brakes, causing the idle to bounce. With the engine fully warm it should idle at 850 rpm +/-50. Too much lower you will be bogging, too much higher your idle will start to bounce. If by chance this doesn’t fix the idle surging, check for vacuum leaks.

Alright guys, hope all of this helps. Thanks for reading! :clap:


Written (mostly) by sb5walker with some help from knj27.

Procrastinating on TN
'93 Pickup
3,459 Posts
Discussion Starter #3 (Edited)
Sticky updated!


-A section about checking for trouble codes to the main post
-Links to write-ups on replacing the 22R-E timing chain
-Some other little bits of nonsense throughout :D

Also I thought I'd throw up a link to the epic Pirate4x4 Toyota Truck owner's bible. A lot of it is probably more hardcore tech than a lot of people will need right a way, but there is a ton of good info in there even if you just want to start learning the basics.

1,756 Posts

A new Toyota Truck owner recently asked what he should check or what maintenance should be done when he first got the vehicle. I thought the response would complement this thread since the maintenance items are also good checks for those of us who have owned our trucks for years. Obviously there's a lot of overlap with the first post, but this one has more detail on specific maintenance tips:

First thing, check the coolant. If it is not Toyota Red or if the previous owner said it has not been changed in the last year and a half, or if it shows signs of being dirty or rusty, you should FULLY flush every bit of the coolant (including out of the heater core and the plastic overflow tank) and replace w/Toyota Red & distilled water 50/50. In fact the last flush should be of distilled water since a good bit remains in the heater core. Replace the thermostat with one from the dealer. The 3vze stat is a 180 deg, and the 22re stat is 190 degrees. But many 22re folks use a 180 deg stat to fight pinging - that's the t-stat for an 85-88 22RTEC, part # 90916-03083. Be sure to replace the o-ring. On a 3vze, make sure the thermostat's jiggle valve is positioned at the top (12 o'clock). This post has a lot of info on coolant types, system capacities, and tips on changing your antifreeze:

I always do all the regular maintenance work whenever I buy a used vehicle. Change oil. I recommend the Purolator PureONE PL20195 which has the highest filtering efficiency of any filter I know of and which has excellent flow. I've found it does keep the oil cleaner for longer than the Toyota filters. Advance Auto Parts sells it. The PL20195 is taller than the stubby stock filter but it fits the 22RE easily & most 3VZEs. On the V6 it's a tight fit, coming very close to an engine mount. It clears on most engines by about 1/8 to 1/4", but on some, it has less than 1/8" clearance and on those I don't recommend using it. Use the Toyota 90915-YZZD3 instead, rather than the very small 90915-YZZD1 which the dealer will try to give you. The D3 is same width as the D1, but is slightly taller and has 27% more filter media area, giving better flow and longer service life.

In the summer if using conventional mineral (petroleum) oil, I recommend running 10W-30, 10W-40 or 15W-40. With very high mileage motors, 15W-50 or 20W-50 can be used, but that's at the extreme heavy end of what can be used. The right-hand number is the viscosity (thickness, or resistance to flow) at 212 deg F (100C) which is about operating temp, and your choice should be based mainly on how loose the bearings are, the signs of which are high motor mileage and low oil pressure. Looser bearings call for heavier weight oil. Other issues that probably call for heavier oil include excess engine noise, excess oil consumption, or possibly leaks. (With leaks, also consider using a good high-mileage oil that contains more seal-swelling esters, like Valvoline's excellent MaxLife. I used it last year and it cut a front main seal leak down to almost nothing.) In a low mileage motor with tight bearings, 10W-30 is good, but higher mileage trucks benefit from heavier weight oil like 10W-40 or better yet a 15W-40. Basically, lighter oil flows better which is good for bearings, for cooling, and for gas mileage, but heavier oil can provide more protection for sliding parts like cam lobes and rings/cylinder liners. If too thin, oil won't protect bearings & sliding parts, leading to excessive wear. If too thick, it won't flow into and through bearings, leading to oil starvation, overheating & bearing damage.

Another factor is that heavier weight oils tend to have more of the zinc additive zddp, which provides a lot more protection to sliding parts; but because the gov't claims it also damages catalytic converters, newer oil classifications contain less of the additive. Diesel oils like Shell Rotella T or Mobil 1 TDT (Turbo Diesel Truck) have more zddp and are fine to run in our motors. (I used the high-zddp Syntec 20W-50 for many years and I'm still passing emissions with the original cat, so zddp can't possibly be as bad as they say. BTW I now know 20W-50 is too thick for most engines.) Some oils now contain molybdenum, which makes up for some of the loss of the zinc.

Because the thermostat will keep the motor near operating temp whether in summer or winter, the op temp viscosity (right-hand number) should be the same weight regardless of season. However, the left-hand number of an oil's rating is the weight at 0 deg F (-18C), and it's very important to use an oil with a low enough weight so it will flow well at the lowest temp it will see. Mineral (petroleum) oils thicken up A LOT at low temps due to the paraffins they contain, and you will ruin your motor by failing to use a low enough W rating for conditions. As a rough guide, I wouldn't use a 20W-something below freezing, nor a 15W- below about 20F, nor 10W- below say about 5-10 deg F. 5W- can be used down to about -10 deg F. Below -10 F, a 0W- would be best.

To sum up, choose the left number based on coldest temp expected, and the right number based on bearing looseness. So if you run 10W-40 or 15W-40 in summer, and live in an area with freezing temps in winter, choose a 5W-40 or 0W-40 in the winter. Likewise if you run 10W-30 summer, use 5W-30 or 0W-30 in freezing temps, or if you run 15W-50 or 20W-50 in summer, a 5W-50 might work for the winter, or a 0W-40 in very cold temps. Red Line 0W-40 is almost a 50 weight at operating temp and yet it flows down to VERY low temps.

The other major choice is mineral vs. synthetic oil. The biggest benefit of synthetic oils is their consistency in viscosity: they do not thicken up anywhere near as much as mineral oils in very cold temps, nor thin out as much when hot. Synthetic oils maintain about the same viscosity across a very large temp range, down to very cold temps. This means that synthetics should be used in areas with winters that go below say about 10 deg F as they will actually flow at startup, where the mineral oils may not.

Also, in order to make a mineral oil multi-weight, polymer molecules are added, which thicken the oil as it gets hot. A 10W-30 oil is a 10 weight oil with viscosity index improvers (VII) added. A 5W-30 is a 5 weight oil with more VIIs added. As the VIIs wear out, the oil reverts to its true weight, the lower number. So the other big advantage of synthetic oils is that because they have little or no VIIs, they will not shear, or lose much of their viscosity, over time and miles. This also means the synthetic oils can go longer between oil changes, which can offset some of their increased cost: just balance the price difference against the frequency of purchase. Convenience factors in too.

Don't use conventional 5W-30 in ANY engine

A mineral 5W-30 oil has about the most VIIs, and therefore vulnerability to viscosity breakdown, of any oil - almost all of them shear to too-thin 5W-20 weight within 2 or 3 thousand miles, so if using 5W-30, choose a synthetic like the excellent Pennzoil Platinum. 10W-40 oils also contain a lot of VIIs, so a 15W-40 may be a better choice for a summer oil (or a synthetic 5W-40 or 10W-40).

If using a good synthetic, there's no harm in using something like a 5W-40 year round. The full syn (group III+) Rotella T6 5W-40 may be the ideal oil for most of our trucks, except the low-mile ones. Flows real well at startup yet has great viscosity for middle-aged to higher mile motors, and has plenty of excellent anti-wear additives. I'm using it year-round now and it seems to be working great. Cheapest at wally world.

There are different types of synthetic oil. Group III oils like Pennzoil Platinum, Valvoline SynPower & Castrol Syntec are not considered "true" synthetic because they are derived from petroleum base stocks, but they offer most of the benefits of the "true" synthetics at a lower price. Group IV (PAO basestock) like Amsoil and Group V (ester basestock) like Red Line are the true synthetics.

The possible down-side to using true synthetic (group IV & V) oil is the chance it will cause leaks. This is due to two possible causes. PAOs are known for drying and shrinking plastic seals. Also, all true synthetic oils are excellent at removing sludge, especially the Group Vs, and on older motors that sludge may be plugging gaps that otherwise would be leaking oil. Most current true syns like Amsoil blend in more group V esters, which cause seals to swell, counteracting the drying effect of the PAOs, so the only way they would cause leaks is by washing away sludge. The higher the mileage and the more sludge there is, the higher the chance that switching to true synthetic would cause leaks.

A plus of the Group IIIs is that they won't cause leaks, so they are safe in higher mileage motors. I think Group IIIs are the bargains of the motor oil market. The guys over on the bobistheoilguy forum have a lot of good things to say about Group III Pennzoil Platinum.

BTW, Mobil now uses cheap group IIIs in Mobil 1 instead of the excellent PAOs they used to use. Many of the Mobil 1 oils now shear almost as badly as mineral oils - worse than the other group IIIs. Castrol Edge is also mostly group III and is very thin for its grade, and I think the oil is overpriced. I'd avoid that one, too.

Royal Purple is often trashed as a poor-quality product by many of the guys on bitog (mainly due to excessive shearing).

For extreme cold, use a 0W-30 or 0W-40. Syntec 0W-30 is actually all PAO (google "german castrol") with near-10W-40 viscosity at 212 F. Red Line makes excellent 0 weight oils. A new winter oil that looks very promising is Rotella T5 0W-30 or 0W-40 - it's either a blend with mostly synthetic (probably Shell's excellent XHVI Grp III+ base oil) or, possibly, full synthetic. Its performance specs are outstanding. Plus being a diesel oil it has excellent additives. And it will likely be inexpensive. Look for it at walmart or advance auto. You lucky Canadians can get ESSO XD3 0W-30 or 0W-40, both excellent winter oils. Petro Canada's Supreme Synthetic 0W-30 is an excellent oil too, if you are running 30 weight in your motor.

BTW, so-called synthetic "blends" usually do NOT contain 50% synthetic as some seem to assume. From all the data I can gather, those blends almost never contain more than 30% synthetic, and often the "synthetic" is a group III. I wouldn't pay near as much for those as you would for a full synthetic. Having said that, some of the synthetic blends perform significantly better than average conventional oils. Valvoline's Durablend and MaxLife are excellent, as is Motorcraft Synthetic Blend if you can find it. Shell Rotella T5 0W-30 and 0W-40 are exceptional; they are probably most or all Group III+ synthetic. The T5 10W- weights look to be typical 30% or less syn blends.

Good quality conventional oils like Castrol GTX, Pennzoil yellow bottle, Valvoline, Halvoline, Chevron or Shell should be changed every 3-4k miles. An exception is conventional 5W-30 which must be changed at 2k miles because virtually all of them shear to 5W-20 in 2-3k miles. Excellent quality synthetic blends like Valvoline's Durablend or MaxLife can make 4-5k miles. Group III synthetics like Pennzoil Platinum, Valvoline Synpower, Castrol Syntec or Shell Rotella T6 can make it 5-6k miles. True synthetics like Group IV PAO-based Amsoil can make it probably 8-10k miles, but used oil should be sent for analysis to verify that it is holding up.

Check the plugs, cap, rotor & plug wires. For ignition parts, use all Denso - nothing else works as well (except for the Yazaki wires from the dealer, which I prefer - pricey, tho). The factory spec Denso plugs are the very best performing plug. W16EXRU for the 22RE, K16RU for the 3VZE. Autozone used to carry them, but I no longer see them on their website. and sell em cheap. You could also get them from Toyota - they're Densos. The Yazaki cable set from the dealer fits perfect, the wires are all numbered, making installation easy, and they come with all the stock high-quality keepers. Check out one of the dealers that sell at a discount in post 30 of this thread - in most online dealer catalogs, you need to search for 'cable set'. The aftermarket Denso sets don't include the keepers but wire quality is very good - it's probably the best lower cost alternative to the dealer set. You can get the Denso part # from sparkplugs and search for "denso" and the part # on amazon - they've had the best prices lately.

While you have the distributor cap and rotor off, try to wiggle the shaft (what the rotor presses onto) back and forth: there should be virtually no play. If it moves side-to-side noticeably, the bearings are worn and you should replace with a remanned Denso or new high-quality aftermarket (which won't last as well as the Denso). New Denso distribs are outrageously expensive.

Take a good look at the old plugs - if they show signs of running rich (flat black deposits instead of tan or light gray), the O2 sensor may be worn out. Always replace with the direct-fit Denso. has good prices, or, again, get the Denso part # & search Amazon. Normally, the O2 sensor should be changed every 90k miles or so, unless it has been gunked up by something evil. If you want to try to check the operation of the sensor, check the fsm in the ENGINE - MFI SYSTEM - OXYGEN SENSOR section. It's not the resistance measurement (that only checks that the heater isn't burned out - but you'd get a CEL if it was), but the switching test. That's counting voltage changes off two terminals in the check connector while a jumper is set. If an oxygen sensor gets fouled with carbon, the switching rate slows down (called a "lazy" sensor) and must be replaced.

If some plugs are showing rich or normal, and others show lean (white deposits with worn, rounded electrodes), then almost certainly the lean cyls have clogged injectors. Try running a bottle of Red Line SI-1 Complete Fuel System Cleaner through a tank of gas. That has the most polyether amine of any injector cleaner. At present, the only other product that has PEA is CRC's "Guaranteed to Pass Emissions Test Formula". Chevron Techron, Gumout Regane and BG-12 no longer contain PEA, which is the only truly effective injector cleaning chemical on the consumer market. If injectors are real bad or the injector cleaner doesn't do the trick, send the injectors to - they do a fantastic job cleaning them, will flow-test them and offer alternatives if they don't balance, and will supply new O-rings all for a very reasonable price. Turnaround is real quick too.

Check the ignition timing. With motor at operating temp, set idle to spec (750 rpm for 22re, 800 rpm for 3vze), then place a jumper between TE1 and E1 in the gray diagnostic check connector attached to the fuse/relay block on passenger inner fender. A metal paperclip works well for that. Listen for a drop in idle speed. If no drop, compare the idle timing before and after you set the jumper. It should decrease when jumper is set. If it doesn't, the tps probably isn't sending the idle signal to the ecu. Check that terminals IDL and E2 (the bottom two on most 22re & 3vze throttle bodies) have continuity when throttle is closed (idle position). If not, try adjusting the position of the tps by following instructions in the factory service manual or this page from 4crawler. If you cannot get the terminals to make contact you will need a new tps - otherwise you will have rough idle, poor gas mileage, and will never pass the idle portion of an emissions test.

Assuming the idle drops when you set the jumper, set base timing to 5 deg btdc on the 22re, 10-12 deg btdc on the 3vze. Spec for the 3vze is 10 deg which works best for emissions, but many of us have better luck running 12 deg base advance. It runs fine with 87 octane (the octane your motor was designed to use) and the additional advance gives a bit better power and snappier throttle response. Some folks run as much as 14 deg base advance on the 3vze, but I would burn 89 octane at that setting. Just remember to lower it to 10 before an emissions test.

After setting timing, go ahead and adjust the idle speed to where the motor is most comfortable: sometimes it runs more smoothly at a bit higher speed. Just don't exceed 950 rpm or you may introduce idle surging, especially on the 22re. The idle spec on 4wd 22re vehicles with automatic transmissions is 850 rpm (but use 750 when setting timing).

Make sure EGR is working - EGR keeps combustion temps down, helping prevent Nox formation (the worst part of smog), but also helping to prevent pinging, burnt valves & blown head gaskets. That's especially important in the 3VZE, but also on the 22RE. EGR doesn't operate at or near full throttle, so it has NO effect on power. And at cruise it actually improves gas mileage by a small amount, so there is every reason to keep it working right and absolutely no intelligent reason to disconnect it. To verify its operation, check that the iron EGR tube is hot where it goes into plenum when motor is at operating temp and is at ~2500 rpm. If not hot, pull the vacuum tube off the EGR valve (still at 2500 rpm) and check tube for vacuum with finger. If there is vacuum, probably clogged EGR tubes or valve. If no vacuum, could be bad EGR VSV, bad or clogged modulator (try blowing filter out with compressed air per fsm), or maybe the vacuum tubes got misrouted at some point. See these two great articles from Motor Magazine for troubleshooting help:
And/or this post:

The toyota air filter is better than any of the aftermarkets.

Closely inspect all segments of the air hose that goes from the air filter/VAFM to the throttle body. Make sure there are no cracks or air leaks, as these will cause serious mixture control problems for the computer. Our trucks are at the age where many of these hoses have cracked.

Fuel filter should be changed every 100k miles or so. Again, the factory filters have an edge in quality. sells them for about $26, a great deal. Slightly cheaper alternative is the NAPA Gold filter - but must be changed more frequently. It's much easier to get the filter with the bracket attached.

NOTE: this post became too long for this whiny forum software so it is continued in post 41:

In the initial post I recommended Armor All to protect the dash. However the same post over on Yotatech elicited this response:
DO NOT use ANY Armor All product on your truck. They've been known to ruin plastics. There are better products on the market like Aerospace protectant or Vinylex. I use Vinylex, its good stuff.
Sounds like the voice of experience and some good info. :thumbsup:

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LINKS 1 of 2

Thanks for the feedback, guys. Glad to know the info's useful. Here are some other topics that may be of interest:


Check to see if your VIN is involved in any recalls or special service campaigns:

A nice website that explains the different automotive systems really well - excellent for folks who have not worked on cars much, but also a good reference even for folks with some experience:

A site with ASE instruction modules and study guides, and technical articles on the various Toyota systems. An awesome educational resource. Follow the "Technical Articles" link for the Toyota-specific info. The sections on OBD I are the relevant ones for our trucks:

The basic Toyota Electronic Fuel Injection System overview from that site:
What the Sensors do and how they do it: <-- very good to read
Air Induction system:
Fuel Delivery system:
Ignition system:

Google 1993 toyota pickup service manual

Great part number reference & also some helpful tech writeups:
Another part number reference with a possibly easier interface. Once you've drilled down to the part number listing, you can pull up a parts diagram by looking for a blue link and a button labeled 'Get Info' under the red bar labeled 'Parts Listing': (toyodiy used to have part diagrams, but the Toyota Corporation made them remove them, claiming copyright infringement. Thanks a lot. Jerks.)
Another source (for the moment) of part diagrams with numbers:

BTW, I'm always looking to improve this list of links. If you find a thread or other source of information that you think would be a good addition, or you have other feedback on this post, please send it to me in a PM (private message). Thanks.


Antifreeze/Coolant FAQ:

A discussion of coolant flushing techniques:

Thoughts on Winterizing your rig:

Motor Oil:

What Oil Filter to choose? (repeat of link in above post):

Gear Oil:

Effective Injector cleaners:

Thoughts on changing Power Steering Fluid:

Brake Fluid types:

Gasoline octane rating explained:

How bad is ethanol? (hint - very):

And why it's in there (Archer Daniels Midland - grrr):


How to pull trouble codes:
When troubleshooting it is often helpful to check for computer codes. Not all codes will cause the check engine light to come on, so you have to check. The procedure is very simple. First, make sure your check engine light works: it should come on when you turn on the ignition before you start the motor. If that light doesn't work, make sure that the Gauge fuse in the drivers kick area is good and is hot when ignition is on. That supplies power to the CEL; the ecu fires the light by grounding it. If there's power at the fuse, check that +B in the check connector is hot when ignition on - that supplies power to the ecu. If it's hot, and the Gauge fuse is hot, when ignition is on, but no CEL, then probably blown bulb.

Assuming the check engine light works, all you have to do to get the codes flashing is:
- Turn the ignition on but don't start the engine. Turn off fan or any other accessories.
- Jump terminals TE1 and E1 in the check connector with a paperclip. The check connector is the little gray box attached to the fuse/relay block on passenger inner fender, and the terminals are labeled on the inside of the cap.
- Back in the cab, leave foot off the gas pedal as it will only work with TPS signaling the idle position, but put the transmission in neutral.
- Count the little flashes of the check engine light.

If there are no codes, the check engine light will just continuously flash twice a second. If there are codes, they are all two digits. It will flash however many times for the first digit, then there will be a 1.5 second pause, then it will flash for the second digit. So code 12 would be: a flash, followed by a 1.5 sec. pause, followed by two flashes. It's that simple.

There could be 2 or more codes, however. There's a 2.5 second pause between each code. After all the codes have been "flashed", there is a 4.5 second pause. Then it gives all the codes over again. It will continue looping through all the codes as long as the ignition is on and TE1 and E1 are jumped. For this reason, wait for the 4.5 second pause before starting your counting so you're sure you're starting on the first code.

22R-E vs 3VZ-E pros & cons: About the best assessment of the 3VZE in cyberspace

3VZ-E Head Gaskets - be sure to use a steel slipperplate HG: <-- Watch out for these gaskets!

Origin of the steel slipperplate head gasket design?

And a problem with it?

How to run a compression test on a 3VZE:

3VZE Intake Port and Polish job:

Replacing the Timing Belt on the 3VZE. I recommend following the factory manual but be aware you do NOT have to remove the cam pulleys to change the timing belt. The fsm is confusing on that point. I find this technique works well for mounting the belt: position the driver side cam pulley exactly on the mark. Position the passenger cam pulley a half tooth clockwise of the mark (as viewed from the front of the vehicle looking back). Position the crankshaft pulley a half tooth counter-clockwise. If the motor is an 88 to 91 (old style without a tensioner), mount the lower idler pulley and spring (acts as a tensioner) but tighten it as much out of the way as possible (against the tension of the spring).

Then place belt around driver cam pulley (if using a toyota belt there will be timing marks on the belt). Then route belt under upper idler and around passenger cam pulley. Then position passenger cam pulley exactly on the mark - the belt should now have no slackness between the cam pulleys. Route belt around water pump pulley and then around crankshaft pulley. Position crankshaft pulley exactly on mark - there should now be no slackness between driver cam, water pump and crank pulley. Route belt around lower idler.

For the 92-95 motors with a tensioner, follow fsm procedure for tensioning belt. To tension the belt on the earlier design, loosen mounting bolt of the lower idler (tensioner) so pulley can press against belt, smoothly rotate crankshaft two full revolutions clockwise (viewed from front looking back) TDC to TDC so the spring can tension belt, then torque lower idler to 27 ft lbs, leaving spring in place. Check that the marks on both cam pulleys align with the marks on the backplate. On my veezy, the cam marks do not exactly align with the backplate marks when crank at TDC, but when in the right position the marked cam tooth is closer to the backplate mark than any other tooth is. (If you used a Toyota belt with timing marks, those will have traveled.)

Ideas on making a Pulley Holding Tool - to get the harmonic balancer or camshaft pulleys off or on:

3VZE Vacuum Hose Routing Help:

22RE timing chain, idle surge, and other stuff: read the FAQ sticky:

Factory bearings vs aftermarket:

22REs eat head gaskets too - as with 3VZE, the head is alum & block iron. Different heat expansion rates means movement over the HG. Use a steel slipperplate design like the one from the dealer for best results. Reports indicate the dealer gasket may be a better choice than the Rock. sells Japanese-made Ishino sets which look like they may be the OEM sold by the dealer. (Also see timing chain links above): Performance - Build Process.html He sure did clean and paint everything up real nice. But you should ALWAYS send the head to a good machine shop to be checked and decked in cases of head gasket failure. And with milkshake oil like he had, you need to check the bearings - his were probably damaged, and the crank possibly scored. If you don't, you risk winding up with this:

Tips on increasing 22RE power: sed&sb=5&o=all&fpart=1

Basic steps for any 22RE or 3VZE that isn't running well: (for a 3VZE but same general recs apply to 22RE)

Rough idle troubleshooting (most 3VZE tips also relevant to 22RE & vice versa):

Rough idle issues can sometimes be solved by cleaning the throttle body:

Hesitation? Advice for a 22re will also mostly apply to a 3vze & vicey verser:

Pinging? Fix it before your engine is damaged:

The pinging thread also contains this post on using Seafoam or water to clean carbon off pistons and valves:

Yes, water really works: water to clean carbon out of engine.pdf

22re runs hotter with the heat on, or the temp gauge spikes up and down? There's a fix for that:

Failed Emissions?

If plugs are flat black, or you failed emissions with high CO, the motor is running rich. Some things to check:

High Nox? Either EGR is not functioning properly or could be running lean: <- Good code 25 (lean mixture) thread

See the EGR checks described in the Maintenance post (#18) in this thread:
Or these great articles on EGR troubleshooting from Motor Magazine:
And/or this post:

You can learn a ton about how the motor is running by learning to read your spark plugs:

Tips on installing spark plugs:

Spark Plug Tech Info:
Decode the Denso spark plug number:
About spark plug heat range:

Ignition System Description:

Code 14 on a 3VZE:

When to replace your O2 Sensor:

Why you should never buy a Bosch sensor:

A functioning ECT (Engine Coolant Temp Sensor) is absolutely required for the ECU to work right. Here's how to find it on the 3VZE:

Got a bum TPS? See this post for replacement info:

Need to adjust the TPS? Either remove the throttle body and follow fsm procedure or try this technique from 4Crawler:

Tips on obtaining a fuel pressure tester:

Thoughts on performing a fuel pressure test:

Here's a nice writeup on replacing the V6 Fuel Filter: To get at the cleverly-hidden fuel filter on a 22RE, remove the access panel in passenger wheel well (filter attached to block - under intake - grr).

Tips on replacing the PCV valve on a 3VZE - 'bout as much fun as a fuel filter on a 22RE, lol:
Or you could try cleaning it:

Knock Sensor Woes - the dread code 52:

Code 53 - problems with the Knock Sensor circuit in the computer:

This thread has good info on 3VZE vacuum hose routing (fsm also good, and should be a sticker on the underside of the hood):

Overheating? One possible cause is a tired fan clutch. You can try adding silicone oil to it - a cheap fix if it works:

3VZE Oil Cooler leaking oil? Seals can easily be replaced:

Some carb tips for our 22r brethren:

Rebuilt motor? Follow a good break-in procedure:


Starter just clicks and motor doesn't turn over? Replacing your Starter Contacts will probably get you going:

And a useful Starter Replacement write up:

Starter doesn't even click? Starter circuit troubleshooting help:

Ignition Switch Power Supply Troubleshooting:

Starter turns over engine but engine won't start?:

22RE Ground Wire Locations - The Guide:

Alternator crappin out? Often it's just the brushes which are cheap on ebay & fairly easy to replace:

Or you could upgrade the alternator:

And/or the Big 3 Wires:

How to get at those pesky fusible links in the fuse/relay block on passenger inner fender (there are a couple tricks to it):

This post became too long for this forum software so it is continued in post 42:
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Fuel Leaks

This is one that's starting to come up more frequently:

Most common fuel leak spot on the 3vze is the fuel pulsation damper, a little disk with a plastic cap stuck on the back end of the passenger side fuel rail. It's dangerous because it drips fuel onto the intake manifold, where it can create some good-size pools, then overflows onto the exhaust crossover which ignites it. Some very nasty fires have started as a result.

Usually manifests as a fuel vapor smell in the cab.

Check for it by jumping +B & FP in the check connector and turn ignition on (but don't start it). That will run the pump and pressurize the fuel rails. Just reach around under the back of the plenum on the passenger side, inboard of the valve cover. About an inch inboard of where the passenger side heater hose comes out the firewall, also a couple inches down and a few forward. Prob a good idea to locate it before pressurizing the fuel lines.

They're pricey for their size - about a hundred bucks. Best price will be from Gary Smith, the parts manager of Toyota of Newnan, GA who offers TN members a 30% discount and actual cost shipping, plus a buck or two for materials cost. Phone is 678-854-9601. Or try 1sttoyotaparts, but I couldn't find the damper in their catalog, so you may have to call them. There are reports of aftermarket parts not fitting, so best to go dealer on this item. (Aftermarket not much cheaper than Gary, anyway.)

Don't forget to get new copper/aluminum crush washers.

EDIT - See this great thread for part numbers and tips on replacing:

It's like a shock absorber for fuel pressure. Evens out the spikes & drops in pressure as injectors open and close, so the fuel metering remains accurate.

Thanks to yotatech members for these photos.

Most or all 22REs have pulsation dampers too, on the underside of the front end of the fuel rail.

Other somewhat common leak spots include injectors (including the cold start injector), the front or rear rubber portion of the fuel return line (front connects to the fuel pressure regulator which is front end of driver side fuel rail on 3vze, back end of fuel rail on 22re; back rubber section connects to fuel pump bracket on top of gas tank - the middle section of the return line is steel). Sometimes the metal fuel or return lines rust and develop leaks on top of the gas tank, which is the fuel pump bracket. If new copper or aluminum crush washers were not used on both sides of a banjo fitting when fuel line segments were disconnected, then the joints can leak. There are rare reports of the fuel vapor recovery canister leaking, but that isn't common.

DO NOT IGNORE GAS SMELLS - FUEL SMELL MEANS FUEL LEAK! There are MANY sources of ignition on a vehicle. No one who has ever witnessed a fuel-fed vehicle fire would ever drive a vehicle with a fuel leak.
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2 Posts
Idle Air Control Valve

Excellent information, I would just like to add another bit.

In various searches over the years I've seen guys asking how they could be losing coolant without any external leaks. Compression and leak-down tests indicate it isn't the headgasket. White exhaust may or may not be noticeable from the tailpipe. Inevitably there are followup replies that continue to point blame at the headgasket and I feel sorry for anybody who tore apart their motor and were no further ahead. Many seem to be unaware or forget about the IAC!

There is an idle air control valve (IAC for short) on most EFI engines. On the 22-re the IAC has a bimetallic spring inside, like a thermostat - heated by the engine coolant. When it's cold, it allows air to bypass the throttle plate effectively raising your 'cold idle' speed. When it heats up, it closes and shuts off the extra air.

There is a rubber seal that can fail (will fail?). If it does, you're sucking coolant into the intake air. IIRC, the rubber can also stick it open or closed - much like a Toyota thermostat and that would mess with your engine idle speed too. It's been a number of years since I had to fix mine so it's now a distant memory.

I recall, at the time I had difficulty finding any helpful information about these. Finding a replacement IAC (new or used) was next to impossible or prohibitively expensive. I believe I bought a $8 rubber gasket from Toyota and was forced to fix it myself.

1,756 Posts
:thumbsup: Nice addition - thanks! ;)

The 22RE throttle bodies have a nice removable IAC (called auxiliary air valve or AAV in the factory manual):

(There apparently are o-rings in the plunger part of the valve that are accessed from a cover plate on the left of this photo of the 22RE t-body. Thanks to hilandfrog over on yotatech for this photo)

This is a good place to check if you're running a cooling system pressure test because of disappearing coolant - pop off the air hose and open the throttle to look for coolant in the throttle body after pressurizing the cooling system.

3VZEs have an AAV too. Unfortunately on the veezy's TB the AAV is integral to the TB and if bad, I believe the whole TB must be replaced. I'm not 100 percent sure of that, tho - may want to ask a dealer if there is a seal or something that can be replaced.

EDIT: Although the 3vze valve is integral, apparently there are some things you can do with it. Here are a couple threads from folks who fixed a clogged 3vze AAV: . . .

'88-91 3VZE AAV:

'92-95 3VZE AAV (a few differences from the earlier model):

(Thanks to OutlawMike & BoostinChick over on yt for these threads & pics.)

Other sneaky coolant leak spots include, on the 22RE, having the timing chain stretch and wear a hole in the timing cover and leaking coolant into the oil, and, on the 3VZE, on the oil cooler (not all veezys have 'em - it's a can on the driver side of block, aft of oil filter with a hose leading from water pump). The coolant loop of the cooler is supposed to be sealed, but corrosion can allow coolant into the oil. (There are a couple oil seals that can be replaced fairly easily if it leaks oil.) Getting coolant in the oil will damage the bearings real fast so if you see oil the color of a Cinnamon Dolce Frappuccino Grande, don't run the motor until you've fixed the problem. Flushing the crankcase with inexpensive 5W-30 oil and half a can of seafoam and running the motor for 5-10 minutes, then draining, will help clear out the old emulsified oil/coolant. The isopropyl alcohol in the Seafoam will leach out some of the water.

1,756 Posts
Just wanted to mention that I have continued to make corrections, updates and additions to the maintenance post (#18) and the links post (#22), so folks may want to check back from time to time.

Also, because some of my ignorance about oil has been educated out of me (thanks to tuckman here and some of the guys over on yotatech), I re-wrote the motor oil section in the maintenance post which I hope will provide folks with more accurate and better information.
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Parts Sources

Only recently learned that Bob Bridge Toyota of Renton, WA no longer has the 1sttoyotaparts site - it was taken over by Titus Will Toyota of Tacoma. Sad to hear it; I always had good service from Bob Bridge. Here's hoping Titus Will Toyota will keep the service up & prices down. (EDIT: reports indicate that Titus Will provides good service; parts prices not quite as discounted but still lots better than list. Still a good choice for west coasters.)

On a positive note, Gary Smith, the parts manager of Toyota of Newnan, Newnan, GA, offers TN members a 30% discount and actual cost shipping, plus a buck or two for materials cost. See this post for contact info. (Call him at 678-854-9601) That's a great discount and I can vouch from personal experience that Gary provides fast, reliable parts service and offers the knowledge that comes from many years experience in the Toyota parts business. It's rare to get such capable and attentive help from a dealer.

Here's a list of all the online toyota dealer parts sales sites that I know of that give at least a 20% discount on dealer list price, with comparison prices for a set of plug wires for a 91 3vze pickup (just pulled that out of the air). List price for that (which is called "cable set" in the catalog) is $80.45 (insane - and WAY up from 6 months ago - thanks to the foreign owners of the privately-held federal reserve bank and their intentional devaluation of our currency by printing trillions more dollars since 2006):

EDIT: as of Feb 2010, list price is up 7 bucks to $87.43! All prices below have been updated. Time to shut down the criminal scam that is the Fed and sue the foreign owners for the literally trillions that they have stolen from us over the past 96 years. They are intentionally destroying our dollar - google "amero" and "north american union"

EDIT2: as of August 2010, list price for 3VZE plug wires is $104.17!!!! Absolutely un-f***ing believable. This is due to the devaluation of our dollar. Wake up people! Your democracy has been stolen by a bunch of bankers. View the vids at the above link, and tell your friends and family.

EDIT3: as of Nov 2010, list price is actually down to $88.38. Wow, how cheap. :rolleyes:

The following are Feb 2010 prices based on list of $87.43 - for comparison purposes only; I haven't updated them to the current prices:

$57.82 (price as of Dec 09 not known) - World Toyota-Scion Parts, Atlanta, GA (one of 97 dealerships owned by TX-based Group 1 Automotive) Minimum shipping at $9.50 is cheaper than most.

August 2010 EDIT: World Toyota, in a classic shoot themselves in the foot move, has changed their shipping policies and now they charge more than twice what most other online dealers charge. Not only that, but they changed their discount from about 35% to 20%, worse than most of the other dealers in this list. So, *sigh*, looks like you'll want to look elsewhere. Their Aug 2010 price for V6 plug wires is $81.42.

$60.44 (earlier price not known) - Toyota of Hollywood, Hollywood, FL -

30% Discount - Gary Smith, the parts manager of Toyota of Newnan, Newnan, GA, offers TN members a 30% discount and actual cost shipping, plus a buck or two for materials cost. This discount is a bit less than Toyota of Hollywood and a bit more than 1sttoyotaparts, but usually cheaper shipping makes the total price less than either one. See this post for contact info.

$62.02 (up from $60.45 in Dec 09) - Toyota of Dallas, Dallas, TX - -

$63.07 (up from $58.03) - Titus Will Toyota, Tacoma, WA - A reliable vendor.

$64.70 (up from $59.53) - Conicelli Toyota, Conshohocken, PA - - FREE SHIPPING on orders of $100 or more - that's a significant savings.

$65.57 (up from $60.34) - Butler Toyota, Indianapolis, IN -

$65.57 (up from $64.36) - Champion Toyota, Austin, TX -

$65.70 (earlier price not known) - Dick Dyer Toyota/Scion, Columbia, SC -

$65.70 (earlier price not known) - Rick Hendrick Toyota, Fayetteville, NC -

$65.70 (earlier price not known) - Joe Myers Toyota, Houston, TX -

$66.45 (earlier price not known) - Champion Toyota Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX -

$69.94 (up from $64.36 - ain't so "cheap" anymore - but their shipping is less than most) - Mossy Toyota, San Diego, CA - -

$69.94 (earlier price not known) - Lynch Toyota Scion, Manchester, CT -

A special mention is richly deserved for Freeman Toyota of Hurst TX. Their price for the $87.43 list part? $96.17 They ADD 10% to the LIST price of the parts they sell!!!!!

Think that's bad? Westbury Toyota Scion of Westbury NY charges $118.03 ! They add 35% to the LIST price of the parts they sell.

I feel sorry for anyone clueless enough to give either of these greedy bastards any business of any kind.

Differences in shipping costs may exceed differences in parts prices. If any of these dealers are local for you, you might ask them if they'll give you the online price - some do allow local pickup. There will be tax, but that would probably be less than shipping.

The Trademotion catalog that drives most of the dealer parts sites is only so-so. Sometimes you need a part number to find a part. Unfortunately part numbers are often changed or substituted, but you might try finding the original part number at one of these sites. Even if it doesn't help on the trademotion catalog, it will allow a dealer to find the part:

Great part number reference & also some helpful tech writeups:
Another part number reference with a possibly easier interface. Once you've drilled down to the part number listing, you can pull up a parts diagram by looking for a blue link and a button labeled 'Get Info' under the red bar labeled 'Parts Listing': (toyodiy used to have part diagrams, but the Toyota Corporation made them remove them, claiming copyright infringement. Thanks a lot. Jerks.)
Another source (for the moment) of part diagrams with numbers:

Alternative sources for some Denso parts: Their price for 1991 3VZE Pickup Denso Plug Wire Set: $29.60 ! The excellent wires from the dealer are made by Yazaki, but the Denso wires are excellent, too. sparkplugs offers great prices but their shipping tends to be expensive; for this part, shipping is $11.51 (Owned by folks who own but this site sells more types of denso parts like starters and alternators.)

Or get the denso part # from sparkplugs and search for denso and the part number - they've been real cheap lately. (Ignore the denso part pictures on amazon.) Denso cable set for 91 3vze pickup: $29.47 with free shipping!! The Yazaki set from the dealer is top quality; each wire is numbered and comes with all the keepers and plastic anti-abrasion coils just where needed. Fits like a glove and lasts a long time. But the Amazon price for the excellent Denso wires makes it a nice cheaper alternative.

A few other worthy parts sources: - great, woman-owned & operated parts vendor in Arizona. They only sell oem or other high quality parts, in my experience, and their service & prices are excellent. They carry a lot of Aisin, Denso and other excellent Japanese OEM parts. Free shipping for orders over $50 plus great prices makes them the cheapest source for many quality parts. - used to carry more Denso & Aisin than they do now. Watch what you order, they carry a lot of garbage, but you can still often find Beck/Arnley parts which often are good parts at good prices. Excellent service. They drop-ship from warehouses all over the country, but different parts may ship from different warehouses with separate and additional shipping charges, so watch for that too.

Tirerack dot com - direct link suppressed on this forum. Aside from tires, they offer great prices on brake pads and rotors, shocks and a few other items. - they sell all kinds of parts including high performance brake and exhaust components, and are one of the best sources for Red Line products. A BBB Accredited business since 1983 with an A+ rating. - bought my Borla cat-back from them in '96, good parts and service. They are a BBB Accredited business with an A+ rating. - never bought from them but some of the guys over on yotatech mention them. Parts selection similar to 4wheelparts. They have an A rating from BBB.

Amazon I notice also carries Aisin parts, but the prices are not very discounted, (although the free shipping can factor in if you are buying just a single part). Cheapest sources I've found for Aisin are:
autohausaz: (free ship over $50 makes it usually the cheapest source)
Wabfab: .
and Marlin Crawler: . Shipping from Marlin is often the bugaboo. They typically don't offer cheap options.

Clutch slave cylinders for example are $29 from Marlin (plus $24 for UPS 2nd Day Air), $40 from World Toyota (with $9.50 shipping), $40 from Amazon (with free shipping), $29 from Wabfab (plus $10 ship) and $35 from autohaus plus free shipping (if total order over $50) or $8-14 UPS ground if bought by itself.

Aisin brake master cylinders are $204 at World Toyota (plus $20 ship), $129 from Wabfab (with $15 ship), $140 from amazon (with free ship), and $131 from autohausaz (with free ship). I've bought from autohausaz a bunch of times and always had great, fast service. I also like that they don't carry sub-standard parts.

For used parts, craigslist & ebay are good sources. is a portal to hundreds of junkyards.

1,756 Posts
Marlin has 1200 lb heavy duty clutch kits for all years and motors of our trucks, and for some other vehicles & years as well. Just select your year/motor from the dropdown. (Stronger-than-stock clutches tend to demand more pedal effort and may tire your leg in stop-and-go traffic, though Marlin Crawler customers report their clutch is comfortable and very driveable.)

The stock strength for 22RE models is apparently 900 lbs, according to Marlin, while the stock V6 strength is 1200 lbs.

If you want a 900 lb clutch, WabFab sells an excellent Aisin/Seco kit: sells stock Aisin clutch kits for some years of our trucks. Just a few months ago they were near $100, now they're $178 - thanks to the owners of the federal reserve. sells Daikin clutch kits for a good price. Daikin used to be a Japanese-made clutch, however, if you go to: you find that the link now redirects to: Apparently, the company was bought by Exedy. And if you check out Exedy, you find that they have a bunch of factories in China. *Sigh*

The dealer clutch is (at least for now) a safe bet.

Don't forget to either have your flywheel resurfaced or install a new one. If resurfaced, be sure the shop knows to machine in a step - the clutch won't work without it.

If you haven't changed the rear main seal in a long while, it's a good time. Wouldn't do to have oil leak all over that nice new clutch.

Both WabFab and autohausaz sell the excellent original equip Aisin master & slave cylinders for very good prices. If you order over $50, you get free ship from autohausaz.
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The maintenance post became too long so I had to split it up into two posts. Here is the continuation of post 18:

Check how much pad is left on all four brake pads, also inspect the rear brake shoes. The shoes are visible through an inspection hole in the backing plate (it has a rubber cover) - you have to be a bit of a contortionist and need a good flashlight. While you're there, make sure the parking brake levers are not frozen in their brackets. If brake fluid and or clutch fluid is dirty, flush/bleed all lines with a good DOT 4 fluid (I like Valvoline Synpower which is available from NAPA). Brake fluid absorbs moisture from the air over time, then becomes acidic and corrodes the expensive cylinders. Make sure the clutch slave isn't leaking, otherwise replace it with an Aisin or other high-quality cylinder. carries aisins for less $$ than the dealer.

If you need new brake pads, use a very good quality semi-metallic like the excellent ones from the dealer (that are impregnated with copper particles) or you might like the Hawk LTS - they're a very good ferro-carbon pad. Don't make the mistake of using any old pad - your truck is quite a heavy vehicle and it needs an excellent brake pad. For rear shoes I use NAPA's best quality. If you need rotors, Brembos are very good & they're cheap at Tirerack also sells the Hawks (as does summit racing).

Check the level of fluid in the power steering reservoir and top off if necessary. Any Dexron ATF will work but Castrol Import Multi-Vehicle Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is an excellent conventional Dexron III compatible fluid that is more viscous than most and is often recommended for power steering. Or if it's leaking, try Castrol's High Mileage ATF, same product but with seal conditioners:,q/pds_HM_ATF.pdf

In fact, before topping off, pull out some of the fluid and check for color and clarity: if not red and clean, you should flush the fluid. See this post for help with that:

The Castrol is better than most conventional ATFs in cold temps, but with a -40C viscosity of 13,000 cP (lower is better), it is not recommended for extreme cold. An alternative ATF for leaking systems is Valvoline's MaxLife Dex/Merc ATF which is full synthetic. It has a -40C Brookfield of 8400, which should be good in all but the coldest temps. Unfortunately it's thinner when hot, too - 100°C, cSt of only 6.11, vs 7.4 to 8.0 for all the other ATFs listed in this post:

If the vehicle is operated in very cold environments, there are two synthetic ATFs that flow much better than most at very low temps, yet still have excellent viscosity at operating temp. The best cold temp performers are the Red Line D4 ATF, with -40C viscosity of 5200 cP:

And for you Canadians, the Canadian market MOBIL 1 SYNTHETIC ATF with 5190 cP:

The U.S. Mobil 1 ATF has a different but still very good formulation, and it flows better at cold temps than non-synthetics, but not nearly as well as the Red Line or Canadian Mobil 1. It has a -40C viscosity of 10,040 cP:

AMSOIL Synthetic Automatic Transmission Fluid is likewise an excellent fluid, superior to non-synthetics, but like the U.S. Mobil 1 it is not the best low temp performer at 9800 cP:

I've used the U.S. Mobil 1 ATF for several years now and I initially worried a bit about seal issues because it's a synthetic, but I've had no leaks or other problems.

I would ask the previous owner when the manual transmission, transfer case and differential oils were last changed and what was used. If you replace the fluids, use ONLY a GL-4 fluid in tranny (manual) - the GL-5 you'll find at a local store will NOT work well in your tranny - too slippery and the synchros won't work. Most of us use either Red Line MT-90 or Amsoil MTG, both excellent synthetic oils. I love the MT-90 - has about the best prices & shipping.

For the transfer case & diffs, any good GL-5 oil will do; though most of us prefer full synthetic. Red Line's or Amsoil's GL-5 75W90 oils are excellent, or you can often find a Valvoline full synthetic SynPower GL-5 in a local store.

For automatic transmissions, apparently you should not flush the fluid if it is burnt (brown color, has a burnt smell, or if flakes are suspended in it). Otherwise, the fluid & filter screen should be replaced every 30k miles or so. I read that Amsoil ATF is great; Red Line probably better in extreme cold. See this article for info on flushing and/or not flushing:

Get the OEM NWB wiper blades from cheap! Or Denso blades from NAPA's also good.

Verify when the timing belt was last replaced (3vze). The dealer probably installed a new one when the head gaskets were replaced. Often there is a sticker on the fan shroud. The belt should be replaced every 70k miles and the water pump and idler pulleys at the same time. If you use an Aisin (dealer) pump and dealer upper idler, in my experience they will last through two changes of the belt. Lately the lower idler has not been lasting as well and should be changed each time.

Also it's a good idea to replace your alternator, P/S & A/C belts when you change the timing belt. Many recommend the excellent belts sold by the dealer. I've had good luck with the NAPA Premium belt, which is a Gates, & I've heard good things about Bando belts - carries them. Goodyear Gatorbacks also not bad, autozone carries those. Don't get cheap ones - won't last.

On the 22re, the valves should be adjusted and the timing chain & guides checked. Search the forum for info.

And ask the PO when the front wheel bearings were last repacked. This thread might be helpful:

It's often a challenge to get the cone washers out of the hubs. Take a look at the factory manual to see what you're getting into. (The online 93 truck fsm is missing that page; try the 95 4runner manual, it has the identical specs.) The best way to free the washers is to back off the acorn nuts about half way and spray the studs & washers with PB Blaster the night before. You don't have to jack up the wheel just to remove the hubs (but you do to remove the rotors, of course.) Leave the nuts on there in case some of the cone washers release and try to go springing off into space (you should be so lucky). The next day, pull the nuts off, respray with PB Blaster, and then hit the studs sharply straight-on using a brass drift and hammer. If you don't have a drift, screw the acorn nuts all the way on and then back them off an eighth inch or so, then use a twelve point socket that is a couple sizes smaller than the correct socket for the nut and hold that socket on top of the nut and hit it sharply with a hammer. You have to use the nut to protect the stud's threads from damage by the hammer, and you have to use the socket to protect the nut from damage. (Warning: if the socket is a cheap one, this may split it.)

If a few sharp strikes don't dislodge the cone washer, look for the split in the cone washer. Squeeze the sides of the washer with the smallest size vise-grips so that you're pinching the split together and wiggle it a bit. Some people have had luck with using a very thin, narrow tapered punch or a tiny size flat-blade screwdriver and inserting it into the cone's split and driving the punch in with a hammer strike. The point is to avoid hammering on or deforming the cone washer - that won't help you, it will only ruin the washer. Likewise hammering on the side of the hub will damage your precious Aisin hub but it won't free the washers. If you find the washers are already damaged, buy some new ones from the dealer, but prepare yourself - they're pricey for their size. To save yourself a lot of trouble next time, use a very thin coat of anti-sieze compound on the angled side and inside of the washers (but not the side facing the nut) before installing them.

If you pick up cone washers at the dealer, pick up a supply of 8 or so of the plastic clips that hold on the front grill. You'll need them the next time you replace a headlight (hehe).

While you have the rotors off, it's a perfect chance to lube the spindle bushings if you have an earlier year 4wd. See the great tip in this thread:
Here's a great write-up on replacing the bushings with needle bearings, with some good tips on removing the cone washers:

Also hit all the grease fittings with a good lithium moly grease. That ain't easy - there are a million of them in the 4WD driveshafts and some are hard to reach. Make sure to lube the slip yokes properly. Check the factory manual and/or this thread. The stock ball joints & steering linkage joints usually don't have grease fittings, but if they were replaced with aftermarket joints, they probably do. If you don't have a grease gun, I recommend the pistol grip kind that can be operated with one hand so the other hand is free to hold the grease fitting secure. This Lincoln is a nice unit (the exact same gun used to be sold by Snap-On for 3x the price): [ame][/ame]

Hit the steering stops with some grease, too: Check your CV joint boots to make sure they're not torn.

Lower the spare tire just to make sure the winch isn't frozen (air up the tire if needed), and spray the winch thoroughly inside and out with a wax-type lube. Boeing's Boeshield T-9 is the best, but Bel-Ray "Super Clean" motorcycle chain lube is good (not their original style lube which is sticky) and Maxima Chain Wax is also good. Believe you me, you do not want to let that winch freeze up! Also hit the parking brake levers and the joints in the cable.

And while you're in the neighborhood, remove the differential breather and make sure it's clear. See this thread. If the breather is clogged, it can cause the axle seal to fail, and the leaking gear oil can wash the grease out of the wheel bearing, causing it to fail, and that is no fun at all to replace.

Check tire pressure - I keep my fronts a couple pounds higher than the backs because of the additional weight. When I haul something, I air up the backs. I have light truck size tires (LT30x9.5) so I can run up to 50 lbs if I want. I never run them that high, but I've run them up to 46. I usually keep the fronts at 36-38 and backs at 34-36. Higher pressure gives better mileage and load handling, lower pressure more comfort and better grip (so long as they're not too soft, otherwise handling is mushy). I never run less than 28 unless on sand.

Crawl under the dash with a strong flashlight and take a good look at the sheet metal bracket holding the top of the clutch pedal. It's not uncommon for this bracket to crack and split due to metal fatigue, which causes poor clutch action, and eventually no clutch action as the bracket tears away from the firewall. If not caught early, this will also ruin the clutch master cylinder. If you hear a pop or grinding noise under the dash while pushing the clutch pedal, that's a tell-tale sign, but people don't always hear it. Most people just have the bracket welded, and often have it reinforced at the same time. Here's a good thread on clutch bracket fatigue:

If you're ambitious (and love your truck), you can treat any frame or suspension rust by removing loose material, degreasing and then using the excellent rust converter "Fertan". See these theads:

Well that should keep you busy for a while, lol.

1,756 Posts
LINKS 2 of 2

The links post became too long so I had to split it up into two posts. Here is the continuation of post 22:


If you're grinding gears see this post on the clutch linkage:

Or this page on clutch hydraulic system maintenance:

Shifter sloppy, won't go into a gear, or pops out? Replacing your shifter seat bushings with a set from Marlin is an easy and cheap fix:

Clutch won't fully disengage or you hear a pop or crackling, creaking, or grinding noise under the dash when pushing the clutch pedal? Your clutch bracket may have cracked due to metal fatigue. Fix immediately, otherwise you risk your master cylinder:

Think your clutch may be slipping?

Some clutch replacement threads & a vid. Refer to fsm. Very important to follow fsm torque specs on all bolts: (contrary to this author's choice, it is best to ALWAYS resurface or replace flywheel, and replacing the rear main seal and shifter seat bushings is also a good idea.)

How to get the pilot bearing out. Suggest spraying w/PB Blaster the night before & coat outside of socket with grease to help make an airtight seal:


86-95 IFS 4x4 GEAR INFO:

Decode your VIN to determine Gear Ratio - a good Differential FAQ:

4Crawler's Driveline 101:

Pickup & 4Runner Drivetrain Specs:

Gear Ratio, Tire Size, MPH, RPM, Crawl Ratio, etc. CALCULATORS:

Zuk Gear Installs page - plus a writeup on the Zuk coil spring mod:

Chassis & Driveline Lubrication Points:

Clunk, Thunk, Thump or Bump in the rear when you come to a stop? Probably need to grease your slip yoke:

Leaking Rear Axle Seal? Fix it before the gear oil washes all grease out of your wheel bearing:

That thread also tells how to prevent the above by Cleaning the Differential Breather:

Or by installing a Differential Breather Extension:

Didn't catch the seal in time? How to replace a rear wheel bearing:

Writeup on Rear Differential Gasket Replacement:

Rear Differential Pinion Seal Replacement:

Transfer Case Output Seal Replacement:

ARB Air Locker Install Writeup:

How to service Aisin manual hubs:

4WD Wheel Bearing & rotor info:

Great lesson from an old-timer on how to pack wheel bearings:

A writeup on replacing a front axle/CV joint:

Ever lube your spindle bushings/bearings? If not, they're probably overdue:

A couple nice SAS (solid axle swap) write-ups:

Thoughts on replacing your ATF - check the fsm and also these sites:


Write-up on rebuilding a four piston caliper:

Some Drum Brake servicing tips:

Replacing the Brake Master Cylinder (for a Land Cruiser, but the basic steps are the same):

Very important to bench bleed the brake or clutch master cylinder. Here's how:

The following video on replacing the master cylinder makes some good points, especially the trick of loosely attaching brake (or clutch) hydraulic lines and having a helper slowly press pedal until fluid comes out, then tightening brake line BEFORE helper releases the pedal. Two corrections: NEVER get brake fluid on your skin! It's the nastiest fluid in a vehicle, very toxic. (Buy a box of blue nitrile gloves from a parts or hardware store.) And USE EYE PROTECTION! Second correction - although the trick mentioned above may prevent much air from getting in the lines, you should still fully bleed all hydraulic lines, if for no other reason than to replace the fluid. Brake fluid absorbs moisture from the air, which can allow fluid to boil when heated by brake friction, introducing air, plus moisture makes the fluid turn acidic, corroding your expensive cylinders. Use DOT 4 fluid as it's the DOT 3 type but meets a higher spec. Valvoline is better than most others. Their DOT "3 & 4" product is their DOT 4 product renamed, so if it's cheaper, get it - all DOT 4 meets the DOT 3 spec. Ignore the "synthetic" term, it's just marketing - all brake fluid is a blend of synthetic glycols. Brake and clutch fluid should be fully flushed/bled every two years in a damp climate, or every 3 years in a dry climate. Your cylinders will last twice as long that way.

Bleeding the Brakes: Bleed in this order: L rear, R rear, R front, L front, load sensing proportioning valve. There are a bunch of different bleeding methods. From hardest to easiest: 1. Two person method - one person presses pedal, 2nd person opens bleeder (with tube attached leading to jar), then tightens fitting, then 1st person releases brake. Repeat until no air. Refill fluid reservoir, on to next wheel. 2. One person using Speed Bleeders. The Speedbleeder brand is the only one that works:

Because it takes some pressure to overcome the check valve, these won't work with a lot of air in the line (the air will just compress). Bleed most of the way with normal fittings, then swap these in. Also, if they fit loosely in the threads, they can allow air to be sucked in past the threads. You can put a ring of grease (or vaseline) around the threads after installing the bleeders, but don't allow any grease to get inside the brake lines. 3. One person with tubing and jar - follow these instructions but don't reuse the fluid!!! - 4. Use a pressure, or power, bleeder. The Motive Products 0101 is the one to use.

Finally! Someone figured out how to do this right! [ame][/ame] Remember to refill reservoir before it gets too low, or air will get into master cylinder and lines.
There are also vacuum pumps sold to bleed brakes, but they must be connected to each bleed valve in turn, they're clunky to use, and applying vacuum to brake lines is as likely to suck air into lines as expel it. Not recommended.
Here's a good how-to using the one-man tubing and jar method, with lots of Toyota-specific pics:

Loud creaking or groaning from the front end when steering wheel turned all the way? Hit those steering stops with some grease:

Front end shimmy or shaking around 45 mph? (Or anywhere between 35 & 60) Your Idler Arm Bushings probably need replacing. They're cheap & easy to replace. Keep in mind later models had a different size bushing - so I recommend getting them from the dealer to make sure you get the right bushings:

A ball joint spacer writeup & comments:
This photo-rich BJ writeup has good info on hubs, too:

An IFS suspension rebuild thread with lots of pics: sells Beck/Arnley suspension parts, most of which are the oem Sankei parts for much less than from the dealer.

Power Steering Pump or Gearbox leaking? First try Castrol High Mileage ATF:,q/pds_HM_ATF.pdf

If that doesn't work, you can either purchase remanufactured units or replace the seals yourself:
Gearbox: (I right-clicked the missing images and chose 'reload image' repeatedly - eventually all images loaded)

Replaced tie rod ends, other steering linkage, ball joints or control arm bushings? Do a string alignment before driving to get a professional alignment (recommended):

How to adjust the torsion bars (dangerous to your truck and your body if you don't know what you're doing):


Decode your VIN:

RECOVERY - what to do when you get stuck and more important, what not to do:

Some Towing Tips:

4Crawler's Wheel & Tire Tech Info page:

Ideas on an in-vehicle repair kit plus other items good to carry. Includes recommendations and links for excellent jumper cables, affordable high-volume air compressors, and backup batteries:

Thoughts on choosing a decent battery:

There's much that can be done about rust - IF you can get at it (inside of frame is close to impossible): (repeat of links in post #18)

Got a big crack in your dash? (Join the club :rolleyes:) Here are a couple threads with repair ideas:

Don't got a big crack in your dash? You will unless you apply this stuff: Supposed to work very well (as opposed to Armor-All, which is reported to crack plastic). Amazon usually has Vinylex for a decent price.

Don't have a tach, oil pressure gauge or charge voltage gauge but want them? Swap in an SR5 cluster. (Don't forget to replace the oil pressure sender BEFORE you hook it up!):

Need to remove the dash for any reason, like replacing the heater core? GREAT writeups:

Want to install a kill switch?

Tired of leaving your headlights on and running the battery down? Install a headlight warning buzzer:

Heater fan only has one speed - high? Replace your blower motor resistor - it's easy! <-- Also a section on replacing brushes in the blower motor

Replacing the fuel filter on a V6 truck (steps the same on 22re but access is very difficult - hope you have an access panel in passenger wheel well, most trucks do.)

Does the fuel gauge work only when near full, then it drops to zero? There's a break in the wire of your fuel level sender's resistor. This thread (for a 4runner - the sensor's location is probably different on your truck) shows the fuel sender quite well:

Fan clutch can't keep up? You can rebuild it fairly easily:

Buying advice given to a friend in early '09 who was looking for a 2WD Toyota or Nissan truck:

Didn't find what you need? Search this forum, or yotatech or pirate4x4, or check out these Toyota Tech Info Websites: (repeat of link given in post #15)

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