Make sure those newly installed CV joints didn't pop out. I can't specifically recall this happening on a Camry, but I have met the occasional half shaft that can fall out enough to decouple from the splines driving it while still appearing to be installed. A quarter inch is a long way in certain contexts. Both shafts need to be locked into the differential or it'll just freewheel in the case. I doubt a shaft popping out could have stalled the engine. But I can't prove it would or wouldn't, so I have to keep an open mind from here.
A cam sensor would have nothing to do with a total loss of transmission engagement. Where there's a mechanical shifter, there's always an accompanying manual valve in a traditional planetary style automatic transmission. When that manual valve is in any position other than park or nuetral, fluid pressure is trying to make parts work that move the car no matter what. Limp mode for most transmissions means that it's operating on a default gear dictated by that manual valve. That usually means you're only driving in 2nd or 3rd gear from start to finish, but you're moving.
Where your transmission is concerned, you should check your shifter linkage at the transmission. Make sure the end is still secured to the ball stud and there's no significant play in the socket end of the linkage. If there are any other troubles at the other end of shifter you forgot to tell us about, we need to know it. Do you still feel the detents ratcheting as you shift from one position to another? Does it still feel like it's fully locked into the intended gear? Did you lose park and forget to tell us?
If there's room to rule out shift linkage problems, you're most likely down to an internal transmission problem. That means a hydraulic circuit problem in which something is not getting fluid pressure because said hydraulic circuit is possibly stuck open or closed when it shouldn't be. That could mean something as simple as a seal blew out in a drum or one of any number or valves hung up in the valve body. You might have a clutch failure, but those generally present themselves over time as slipping and flare shifts, not abruptly. If it is an internal transmission problem, I'd bet on a band or a hard part failure. I couldn't tell you how cheap or expensive that could be without doing some exploratory surgery.